the renaissance 1485–1660. definition french for “rebirth,” the renaissance was a revival of...
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The Renaissance148516601DefinitionFrench for rebirth, the Renaissance was a revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe that began in Italy in the 14th century
Characteristics:People read ancient Greek and Roman classics
A humanist philosophy spread, focusing on life on earth as well as in eternity
The arts and sciences flowered
A sense of curiosity and creativity emerged
2The Protestant ReformationBegan with Martin Luther in Germany
Luther believed that religion should be based on a personal understanding of the Bible, not the authority of the Pope
The English objected to the financial burden placed on them by the Church in Rome
3King Henry VIII (reign, 150947)Split from the Catholic Church and declared himself head of the new COE (divorce and have a male heir).Wives: Catherine of Aragon (divorced), Anne Boelyn (beheaded), Jane Seymour (died), Anne of Cleves (divorced), Catherine Howard (beheaded), and Catherine Parr (survived)Executed humanist Thomas Moore, long-time friend and advisor, who refused to recognize Henry as head of churchAuthorized the first English translation of the BibleCreated the Royal Navy, which secured Englands safety
Henry VIIIs HeirsEdward IV (r. 15471553)Jane SeymourCrowned at nineDied of tuberculosis at fifteenMary Tudor (r. 15531558)Catherine of Aragon Restored CatholicismCalled Bloody Mary because of 300+ Protestant executions Married King Philip II of Spain5Elizabeth I (reign, 15581603)Anne BoleynBrilliant and successful monarchRestored the Church of EnglandCalled Virgin Queen because she never married; turned down numerous offers, including King Philip II of SpainPatron of the arts, especially theater
The Spanish ArmadaIn 1588 Catholic King Philip II of Spain attacked Protestant England (Elizabeths execution of Catholic Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots)Englands Royal Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada (most feared fleet in the world)The victory ensured Englands independence from the powerful Catholic countries of the MediterraneanThe English started writing as they never had before, and Elizabeth, now a symbol of peace and prosperity, provided the inspiration for scores of writers
7After Elizabeth, A Decline in LeadershipWhen Elizabeth I died, she was succeeded by her second cousin, James I (r. 16031625), the king of Scotland:
Loved literature and drama: patron of Shakespeare, sponsored a new translation of the BibleHis expensive dress and court life offended religious and thrifty Englishmen
8Charless troubles with Parliament:he wanted to raise taxes they did not agree with his foreign policy this sparked the English Civil Wars (16421651) that ended with:The dissolution of the monarchyThe beheading of Charles IThe flight of Charles II, his son and heir, to FranceJames I was followed by his son, Charles I (r. 16251649):
9Puritans (16491660)The Puritans ruled under the strict control of Oliver Cromwell, a shrewd leader who led England after King Charless beheading.Puritans closed down most theaters from 1649 to 1660 and censorship of the arts was heavily enforcedWhen Cromwell died in 1658, exiled King Charles II returned from France in 1660.
10Vocabulary WordsMetaphorSonnetQuatrainPetrarchan SonnetSpenserian SonnetParadoxShakespearean SonnetCoupletTurnConceitCarpe diem
Timeline1558: Elizabeth Icrowned1517: Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation1588: English navy defeats Spanish Armada1649: Charles I executed; English monarchy suspended148516601509:Henry VIII crownedc. 1533:Henry VIII splits Church of England from Rome1564: Shakespeare born1620: Mayflower lands at Plymouth Rock12