renaissance – “rebirth”

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RENAISSANCE REBIRTH. A period of great intellectual and artistic creativity. Introduction. The Renaissance is often considered one of the great turning points in the history of Western Civilization. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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RENAISSANCE REBIRTH

RENAISSANCE REBIRTHA period of great intellectual and artistic creativityIntroductionThe Renaissance is often considered one of the great turning points in the history of Western Civilization.It featured a new interest in learning about the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome.The Big Questions:What was the Renaissance and why did it happen?What were some of the new ways of thinking during the Renaissance?Who were some of the key people and contributions of the Renaissance?Background The Renaissance began in ItalyLocation centrally located in the Mediterranean Sea regionAs trade increased, Italian cities became centers of banking, commerce, and industryMerchants and nobles acted as patronsSupported artists, writers, and scholarsPowerful leaders (because no single ruler had united the Italian peninsula)Characteristics of the RenaissanceSecularism (non-religious) increased as people began to show greater interest in this world rather than the here afterReason used observation and experience to explain the world rather than Christian teachingsHumanism emphasized dignity, worth, and uniqueness of individuals. (man is the focus of all things)Christian Humanism a movement in northern Europe that promoted reason through Christian teachingsImpacts of the RenaissanceArtistic IntellectualPoliticalEconomicScience and TechnologyARTISTIC:Art before the Renaissance was greatly influenced by Byzantine stylesHighly decorativeFlat and not life-likeFigures floated in space without shadowsSized of figures were based on importance, not where it was placed in the pictureRenaissance art featured new depth, dimension, and perspectivePainting and SculptureEarly Renaissance ArtistsGiotto (1267-1337) used scenes with figures in lifelike space, realistic shading, showed emotion and gestures, and figures receding in space grew smallerMassacio (1401-1428) used perspective (guidelines to calculate how things recede in the distance) and other realistic effectsMasters of the High RenaissanceLeonardo Da VinciMichaelangeloRafaelDonatello

AKA: NINJA TURTLES

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)The epitome of the Renaissance ManPainter, sculptor, inventor, scientistDissected human bodiesKept a notebook of designs (machine gun, helicopter, etc.)Last Supper, Mona Lisa

Michaelangelo (1475-1564)Sculptor and artistPaintings and statues were startlingly realisticDavid, Pieta, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

Rafael Donatello

ArchitectureStudied ruins of buildings from ancient RomeAbandoned Medieval styles (pointed arches, ornamentation)Used columns and circular arches of the classical periodDemonstrated technical achievements of applying reasonOne of the most famous architects was Filippo Brunelleschi

Intellectual ImpactScholarship and LiteraturePetrarch the Father of Humanism: collected and studied ancient textsErasmus questioned the Church and used satire to criticise More authors wrote on secular (non-religious) subjectsBoccaccio wrote in the Italian vernacular (local language, not Latin)Rabelais (French), William Shakespeare (England), and Cervantes (Spain) also wrote in their native languagesWriters described the dignity of man, pleasures of the senses, and instructed nobles in how to behave at court16Intellectual Impact continued...Science and TechnologyCopernicus a polish scientist, concluded that the Earth orbited the sun. His work was banned by the Church (Church taught that Earth was the center of the universe)Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Italian scientist, studied motion and laid the foundation for modern physics. Observed the heavenly bodies with one of the first telescopes and wrote about his belief in Copernicus theory. Was charged by the Catholic Church, ordered to appear before the Inquisition in Rome, was found guilty and confined to his homeGutenberg and the printing revolutionJohann Gutenberg (German printer)Developed a printing press with moveable typeMoveable type, a special press, and oil-based inks allowed the mass production of printed booksEncouraged the spread of new ideas Increased literacyPolitical ImpactMachiavelli a courtier and politician in FlorenceWrote The Prince a guidebook in how to secure and maintain political powerArgued that the most successful rulers were not those who acted according to laws or conscience, but those who were willing to do whatever was necessary to hold power (the end justifies the means)Wealthy Italian city-states, weakening of the Church, and reasoning of writers led to the concept of reason of stateRulers collected taxes, raised armies, hired professional soldiers, and exchanged ambassadorsEconomic ImpactPeople wanted to improve their material conditionsWealthy accumulated luxury goodsIncreased trade in a greater variety of products (clothes, foods, wines, and furnishings)Continued growth of citiesLEFT SIDE ACTIVITYPretend you are an Italian Doge (noble leader of a city-state). You are wanting to become a patron. Create an advertisement seeking an artist, architect, etc. to work for your family. Be specific about what you want this person (or people) to accomplish.

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