the renaissance: a flourish of genius 1485-1660. renaissance is a french word that means "rebirth"....
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DESCRIPTIONHumanism is an intellectual movement which used Greek and Latin classics as well as teachings of the Bible to strengthen Christianity, not to discredit it. Erasmus - the most well-known Renaissance humanist He was a Dutch monk who lived outside the monastery and traveled to many European countries. He taught Greek at Cambridge University. Thomas More - a young lawyer He served as a knight and as lord chancellor. He wrote poems, pamphlets, and biographies. His most famous work was Utopia. Erasmus and More both loved life, laughter, and classical learning. They were dedicated to the Church, but they disapproved of its corrupt practices.
The Renaissance: A Flourish of Genius Renaissance is a French word that means "rebirth". This refers to a renewed in classical learning and in the ancient writings of Greece and Rome. People once again learned to read Greek and began to reform the Latin they read, wrote, and spoke. The Renaissance began in Italy in the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century. Well-known persons from the Renaissance include Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Christopher Columbus, and Galileo. The predominant religion was Roman Catholicism. The Church financed both scientific and artistic endeavors. Humanism is an intellectual movement which used Greek and Latin classics as well as teachings of the Bible to strengthen Christianity, not to discredit it. Erasmus - the most well-known Renaissance humanist He was a Dutch monk who lived outside the monastery and traveled to many European countries. He taught Greek at Cambridge University. Thomas More - a young lawyer He served as a knight and as lord chancellor. He wrote poems, pamphlets, and biographies. His most famous work was Utopia. Erasmus and More both loved life, laughter, and classical learning. They were dedicated to the Church, but they disapproved of its corrupt practices. Johannes Gutenburg - German who invented the printing with moveable type (called the printing press) The first complete printed book was an immense Latin Bible. This led to a flood of books, which meant they were less expensive. William Caxton - a merchant, diplomat, and writer He set up a printing press in Westminster and issued about 100 different titles. This led to a flood of books printed in English. The Reformation - a series of events that involved the rejection of the authority of the pope and the Italian churchmen The English resented the financial burdens placed on them by the Vatican in Italy. Martin Luther - German monk who founded a new kind of Christianity based on a personal understanding of the Bible instead of basing one's understanding on what the pope said. Founded the Lutheran church. Henry VIII sought a divorce from Catherine, his wife of 24 years. Divorce was not allowed, especially for kings. Henry needed a loophole. He asked the pope to say that the marriage between him and Catherine was not legal because she had been married previously to his older brother, who had died. His reasoning was that being married to his dead brother's wife violated Biblical law found in Leviticus. Henry's real motives were 1) Catherine had not given him an heir. He had a daughter (Mary), but he thought he needed a son, and 2) he was interested in and wanted to marry Anne Boleyn. The pope could not grant the divorce (or annulment) because it violated the beliefs of the Catholic Church, plus the pope was controlled by Catherine's nephew. Henry appointed a new archbishop of Canterbury who granted the divorce. Henry broke with Rome by establishing the Church of England and made himself head. Catherine refused to accept the divorce, so Henry locked her up. Thomas More did not agree with Henry and would not legally recognize Henry as head of the Church of England. Henry ordered that Thomas be beheaded. Many people were unhappy with the new church because they felt it was simply a copy of Catholicism. They eventually became known as Puritans, Baptists, or Presbyterians. Henry had six wives: Catherine of Aragon (daughter to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain), Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr. Contrary to popular belief, Henry did not kill all his wives...only two. The fates of his wives can be remembered in this way: Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived Henry had not problems have extramarital affairs (he has numerous illegitimate children), but he would not tolerate any suspicion of his wives' cheating. Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were beheaded because of talk of their infidelity. Henry was known for creating the Royal Navy. This put a stop to foreign invasions and allowed the political power, language, and literature from England to be spread throughout the world. Henry's legitimate children were Mary, Elizabeth (Anne Boleyn), and Edward (Jane Seymour). He had no children with his last 3 wives. Laws of succession stated that a son had to be crowned first, so when Henry died, his son Edward took the throne at age 9. Because he was very sick, he ruled in name only. He died of tuberculosis before he ever wielded power. Following Edward's death, Mary became the first female to rule England. She was a devout Catholic and was determined to avenge the wrongs done to her mother. She reestablished the pope's power and began hunting down Protestants. She burned 300 of her subjects at the stake, earning her the name of Blood Mary. She also alienated her people when she married Phillip II, king of Spain. She died of a fever and had no children. Upon Mary's death, Elizabeth became queen. She was known as a brilliant and successful ruler. She restored law and order, reestablished the Church of England, and rejected the pope's authority once again. Because of this, the pope excommunicated her. Elizabeth never married and became known as "the Virgin Queen." Plots against her life were common. Her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots, was responsible for several of them. Mary believed she should have been the rightful heir to the throne. After numerous plots, Elizabeth eventually had Mary sent to the chopping block. King Phillip of Spain used the execution of Mary as an excuse to invade England. He assembled the Spanish Armada, a fleet of warships, and set sail to invade. The Royal Navy, with the help of bad weather, was able to defeat the Spanish Armada. Because Elizabeth died childless, her cousin James I of Scotland became king. James was the son of Mary Queen of Scots. He was also James VI of Scotland. He was not as well loved or as successful as Elizabeth; however, he is known for several things: He was a patron of Shakespeare. The acting company Shakespeare was a part of was called The King's Men. He sponsored (NOT wrote) a new translation of the Bible. This is known as the King James Version and is what many of you may be familiar with. (Thou shalt not...Honor thy father and thy mother...Thy rod and thy staff...) Upon James I's death, his son Charles I became king. He was beheaded by some of his subjects, and his family went into exile in France. For the next 11 years, England did not have a king or a queen. Instead, the country was ruled by Parliament and Oliver Cromwell, who was Puritan dictator. Charles II returned from exile and became king.