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The 16th Century

The Renaissance Period(England 1485-1660)

Renaissance = rebirth -- refers to the renewed interest in classical learning and the writings of ancient Greece and Rome

* Started in Italy* Italian geniuses: Boccaccio, Petrarch, da Vinci, Galileo, Machiavelli, Michelangelo, ColumbusMichelangelos art, with its perfectly proportioned figures, suggests that humans are noble and capable of perfection

Later, John Milton expressed same view of free will, potential greatness, and possible degradation of humanity. (with great power comes great responsibility) -- Paradise Lost = epic poem

Beginning of the late 1400sChangePeoples valuesBeliefsBehaviorRenewal of Human SpiritRenaissance personThe Church is still rich and powerful.HumanismAn intellectual movement (OPTIMISTIC view of human life)Used the classics combined with traditional Christian thought tried to harmonize Bible with classicsTaught them how to live and rule

Desiderius Erasmus (1466?-1536)Dutch Monk---loved to travel---wrote in LatinBelonged to all of Europe---because of travelsOn a trip to EnglandTaught Greek at CambridgeMet and became friends with a young lawyerSir Thomas More

Sir Thomas More(1477?-1535)

The two had much in commonboth lovedLifeLaughterLearningBoth churchmenbut neither happy about some of the Churchs corrupt practicesAlso wrote in LatinPoems, pamphlets, Utopia, etc. Held a number of important offices as Lord Chancellor he was one of the kings chief ministersHad a stand-off with the King (later) (over a matter of law) and was executed because of it (became a martyr and later the Church declared him a saint 1935)

Other English HumanistsSir Thomas ElyotRobert Ascham

*** Both wrote in English, a sign that Latin would eventually cease to be the language of learningGutenbergs (Johann Gutenberg)Printing PressAbout 1455First book printedThe Latin BibleHelped spread knowledgeMade books more available to more people (REVOLUTIONIZED THE WORLD)William Caxton = English printing press set up in 1476GutenbergsPrinting Press

REFORMATION movement(going on during the Renaissance Period)Breaking with the Roman Catholic Church (many upset at corruption, etc. remember Chaucers satire?) (PROTESTED = Protestants)English Reformation and Renaissance were closely relatedEnglish writers will feel the effectsBut varied from country to countryBasically the rejection of the authority of the Pope and the Italian churchmen (ASIDE) ???Did you Know???Discussion of Christianity divisions: Roman Catholic---Protestant (different denominations, vary according to doctrine)Other world religions did existThe Church and EnglandConflict had been going on for a long timeHenry II and Thomas Beckett---remember?By 1530s break seemed possiblePatriotism and national identityResented financial burdens imposed by the VaticanGermany..Martin Luther 1517A more personal relationship, understanding of the Bible rather than the teachings of the Roman Catholic ChurchNot what the Pope said -- What the Bible saidWar of the Roses(1455-1485)Battle for English throneHouses of Lancaster and YorkRichard III killed and replaced by Henry Tudor who fought as a knight for the House of Lancaster and married Elizabeth York, uniting warring families and restoring peace & order to kingdomHe became Henry VII, ruling from 1485-1509

Henry VIIruled for 24 years

All My Wivesa Soap Opera!Henry VII(War of Roses)Henry and Elizabeth have two sons: Arthur & Henry

Arthur and KatherineArranged marriage (Katherine of Aragon)Alliance with SpainShe-daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of SpainBanns (public proclamation of coming marriage) were read by Church; marriedSeveral months later, Arthur diedThe spareHenry married herHenry VIII ruled for 36 years

Henry VIII

Life.1491-1547Reign1509-1547RENAISSANCE MAN wrote poetry, music, literature; in youth very athletic, handsome, ladies man, good dancer, etc.Established the ROYAL NAVY (begun by his father and became powerful under son) Put stop to foreign invasions, allowed England to spread power, language, literature all over world. (beginnings of England as World Power)Henry VIII WivesWIVES: - 1) Katherine of Aragon (divorced) 2) Anne Boleyn (beheaded) 3) Jane Seymour (died) 4) Anne of Cleves (divorced) 5) Catherine Howard (beheaded) 6) Catherine Parr (survived)

Katherine of Aragon -- Wife 1

Katherine of Aragon

Very Catholic!They were very happy for awhileGave birth to daughter: MaryDoesnt give him the son he wants, eyes move elsewhereAnnulment (divorce) sends her back to Spain

Anne Boleyn Wife 2

Anne Boleyn -- Wife 2Henry created the CHURCH OF ENGLAND -1531- for herHenry became attracted to her about 1525 she was one of Katherine of Aragons ladies in waitingHenry sent Cardinal Wolsey to the Pope1529-Henry dismissed Cardinal Wolsey as Lord Chancellor (didnt get right answer from Pope)Establishment of the Church of EnglandHenry established the Church of England (English Church, Anglican Church) and made himself supreme head in 1531 (NOTHING changed in Church except his divorcenever considered himself Protestant)Henry replaced him with Sir Thomas MoreLoyal to Rome, his friend; thought hed get the upper hand in Church decisions, especially in getting a divorceHenry underestimated his friends commitment to ChurchAnne BoleynWife 2 continuedHenry secretly married Anne - 1533Parliament declared the marriage to Katherine invalidCareful..if marriage is invalidWhat happens to Mary????She is considered illegitimateAnne gives birth to Elizabeth Sept. 1533Sir Thomas More FallsA Catholic, loyal to true meaning of Church and to KatherineWould not attend Annes coronationbut sent messages that he hoped they would be happy.Henry VIIIs First Act of Succession- ordered subjects to accept Henrys marriage to Anne as undoubted, true, sincere and perfectmaking Elizabeth the rightful heir and Mary illegitimate-- More refused to sign4 days later imprisoned for high treasonSir Thomas More FallsKept in Bell Tower, London, for 1 yearFound guilty and sentenced to be beheadedBeheaded 1535 Last words: I am the Kings good servant and Gods first.The Pope excommunicates HenryAnne Boleyn FallsHenry soon tires of herAnne had 2-3 miscarriages or still-births (some males) (probably actually Henrys fault)Henry needs a son.he needs to get rid of AnneHas her arrested on charges ofWITCHCRAFT and adulteryShe TRAPPED him in to marriageSays she is an adulteressRelations with 5 other menEven incest with her own brother GeorgeNone of it trueAnne Boleyn FallsCourt finds her guilty---May 1536Her own uncle presided over the court (her father was excused from being present, but did preside over trial of supposed lovers)Because of Henrys fondness for her, he has a sharp sword commissioned for the execution instead of the broad axJane Seymour -- Wife 3

Jane SeymourWife 3Quiet, mousey and frailOne of Anne Boleyns ladies in waitingSeemed to always be frightenedVERY different from Katherine and AnneMarried Henry day after Boleyns executionAlready carrying Henrys only legitimate sonEdward (1537-1553)Childbed FeverDiedWas Henrys favoriteshe gave him a son.Act of Succession IIMade Edward the heir

Made BOTH Mary and Elizabeth illegitimate

Anne of Cleves -- Wife 4

Anne of ClevesWife 41540---Henry marries her, sight unseenAlliance with GermanyHad only seen portraits of Anne (in person, didnt like what he saw called her a Flanders mare)

She saw what was coming (SMART)Testified-the marriage was never consummated Probably most fortunate of all Henrys wivesReceived many gifts from Henry (SET for LIFE)

Catherine Howard Wife 5

Catherine HowardWife 5Born between 1520 and 1525no recordCousin of Anne Boleyn (poor side of family)Wild child -- not supervised like most young childrenAffair with music teacherAffair with estate managerOne of Anne of Cleves ladies in waiting

Catherine HowardWife 5Rumors she was carrying Henrys son before he annulled marriage to Anne of ClevesProbably started by her familyIt workedthey were married a few weeks later (16 days after being freed from Anne)Henry showered her with jewels and clothesHenry called her his rose without a thornCatherine vowed all his wishes would be metBUT.

Catherine HowardWife 5She found her marriage bedunappealingBy this time, Henry wasNearly 50 (she was approximately 19)Weighed about 300 lbs.SickHad a leg ulcerEarly in 1541..she had a romance with Thomas Culpepper

Catherine Howards FallBy November 1541She and her family had enough enemiesCharges of treason & adultery were brought against her Henry didnt want to believeHer lovers confessedafter tortureAND Henry sees the love letter.Catherine admitted to being wild before her marriagebut NEVER admitted to the affairs after her marriage.Catherine Howards FallStripped of her title of QueenArrested and confined; found guilty Sent to the Tower of LondonMarriage annulledLast days, she practiced putting her head on the chopping blockBeheaded February 12, 1542Defiant Last wordsI die a Queen, but I would have rather died the wife of Culpepper.

Catherine Parr Wife 6

Catherine Parr -- Wife 6

1512-1548Widowed twiceIn a relationship with Thomas Seymour (Janes brother, actually married him after death of Henry)She caught Henrys eye-he proposedMarried in July 1543She was friends with his childrenEven brought Henry and his daughters togetherThrough an Act of Parliament-they were put back in the line of successionOLD Henry VIIIAs he agedHe became cruel, tyrannicalHis health was failingOver weightWound from 1536 still unhealed.Henry died January 28, 1547ExecutionsHis Legacy.the new church..The Church of England (and Royal Navy)!

Edward VI(son of Jane Seymour) ruled for 6 years



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