the renaissance. the italian renaissance renaissance-french in origin-meaning rebirth....
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The Italian RenaissanceRenaissance-French in origin-Meaning Rebirth.Emerged in Italy because of economic growth and governmental factors.Trade flourished here-ramification of the Crusades.Italian city-states had maintained political independence.
Italy is closely attached to the classical traditions of Greece and Rome.Interest in the classics was labeled humanism.Scholars who pursued this-humanists.The very philosophy of life changedSeek fulfillment in daily living rather than merely the afterlife.Emphasis on the individual.
HUMANISMHumanities history/philosophyEmphasis upon becoming a well rounded person with a variety of interests-art, music, sports, literature, and politics.Todays education based on this philosophy.
Humanist WritersPetrarchSonnet14 lines-unrequited love.Cellini Autobiography.MachavelliThe Prince End justifies the means.
Italian City-StatesBecause Italy resisted feudalism and control of the emperor a social order emerged in which wealth and ability was valued over titles and land ownership.City-States are governed by wealthy families.
Leading City-StatesFlorence: birthplace of Italian RenaissanceWealth in textile industry.Medicis made their money in bankingpatrons of the arts.Instituted a graduated income taxMedici rule was for a time interrupted by an uprising led by a Dominican friar: Girolamo Savonarola.Savanorola strict regulation of public behavior soon aroused public opposition.
Rome and VeniceRome: Pope and cardinals comprise wealthiest class. Replaces Florence as leading city- stateSt. Peters Basilica (largest Christian church in the world)Venice: By late 1500s assume leadership of the Renaissance.Dominates trade with AsiaGoverned by a Republic
VeniceRepublic headed by a Doge (Duke)The council of ten (wealthiest merchants) had the real political power.Revenue generated via tariffs.Artists flocked to this commercial center.Artists emphasized realism and secular activities, Human Emotions.
Architecture returns to classical styleItalian RenaissanceBrunelleschiCreated the Cathedral of FlorencePlay Video
SculptorsDonatello1st to cast in bronze since the ancients.MichelangeloStatue of DavidGhiberti10 magnificent New Testament Scenes
PaintingRealisticEmphasizing Human EmotionsDaVinci
Michelangelo-Sistine ChapelChrist giving the key to St. Peter
The Renaissance filters to the NorthFranceEnglandNetherlands
The Northern RenaissanceSpread of the Renaissance to Northern CountriesWar Spreads it1494 France invades ItalyKing Frances I becomes fascinated w/Italian Renaissance fashion and art.
Brings Leonardo Da Vinci and others to FranceOther rulers in North follow bring humanists to their country
Spread of Renaissance Cont.TradersNew found wealth amongst the Northern merchants begin to spend money on (values) education, arts, fine goods and expensive housing.TravelTo Italy to study w/Italian masters
Newly educated middle classknowledge among middle class aided by the invention of the printing press.
Printing pressJohannes GutenbergAbout 1440 German metal workerUsed moveable typeResult: publish books more quickly and less expensive
Northern Scholars adapt Italian Renaissance to fit better their needs.
The French RenaissanceUnique-blended French medieval Gothic with the classical columns used by Italian architects to create the Chateaux (castles)Francis I and Nobles built large country estates.
French WritersPierre Ronsard-own sonnets inspired by Petrarch. Wrote on love, passing youth and immortality
Michel de MontaigneAutobiographyPersonal EssayShort Phrase compositionExpress clearly personal viewDisadvantage of royaltyA heavy burden to be a king.
Francois Rabelais (RA-buh-lay)Most popular of French authorsWrote on many topics-themes were of rejecting Middle Ages focus on the after life.People should enjoy life to the fullestWrote on law, medicine, politics, theology & navigation
GermanyAccepted Italian RenaissanceUniversities and schools promoted the humanist learningLatin still the scholarly language (increase in German and Dutch)
Christian HumanismMore religious toneWanted reform in the Catholic ChurchBelieved that humanist learning and Bible study were the best way to promote these goals
Most Famous Christian HumanistDesiderius (Dez-ih-deer-ee-us) ErasmusInspired colleagues to study Greek and HebrewCan understand older versions of the Bible.Take a more critical view of the Catholic Church.
He attacked the extravagances of the Renaissance Popes.Noted work, The Praise of FollyDescribes these popes as no longer practiced Christians.
Quote from Erasmus: Scarce any kind of men live more devoted to pleasure or with less troublesTo work miracles isnot in fashion now;to instruct the people, troublesome; to interpret scripture; to pray, a sign one has little else to do
Northern European PaintersTheir style relies more on Medieval than classical models1400s Flemish painters Jan & Hubert Eyck (EYEK) painted scenes from the Bible and daily life in sharp realistic detail
Developed TechniquesDeveloped painting in oilsGives richer colorsSoon spreads to Italy-oil painting technique
Pieter Brueghal (Broy-gahl)Combine Italian technique with artistic traditions of his homeland.Paints realistic portraits, landscapes and scene from peasant life.
The English RenaissanceIdeas of Renaissance did not spread to England until 1485---War of the RosesendsHenry VII invites Italian Renaissance scholars to EnglandTeach Humanism
Thomas More-English StatesmanWrites Utopia in LatinCriticizes today's society and compares it to a perfect society
William ShakespeareDrew ideas from Medieval Legends and classical mythology.History of England, Denmark and Rome.
Christopher MarloweWrote on: humanistic qualities such as:Love, jealousy, ambition, and despair.
Plays are still relevant todayStill done.