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  • The Renaissance

  • The Italian RenaissanceRenaissance-French in origin-Meaning Rebirth.Emerged in Italy because of economic growth and governmental factors.Trade flourished here-ramification of the Crusades.Italian city-states had maintained political independence.

  • Italy is closely attached to the classical traditions of Greece and Rome.Interest in the classics was labeled humanism.Scholars who pursued this-humanists.The very philosophy of life changedSeek fulfillment in daily living rather than merely the afterlife.Emphasis on the individual.

  • HUMANISMHumanities history/philosophyEmphasis upon becoming a well rounded person with a variety of interests-art, music, sports, literature, and politics.Todays education based on this philosophy.

  • Humanist WritersPetrarchSonnet14 lines-unrequited love.Cellini Autobiography.MachavelliThe Prince End justifies the means.

  • Italian City-StatesBecause Italy resisted feudalism and control of the emperor a social order emerged in which wealth and ability was valued over titles and land ownership.City-States are governed by wealthy families.

  • Leading City-StatesFlorence: birthplace of Italian RenaissanceWealth in textile industry.Medicis made their money in bankingpatrons of the arts.Instituted a graduated income taxMedici rule was for a time interrupted by an uprising led by a Dominican friar: Girolamo Savonarola.Savanorola strict regulation of public behavior soon aroused public opposition.

  • Rome and VeniceRome: Pope and cardinals comprise wealthiest class. Replaces Florence as leading city- stateSt. Peters Basilica (largest Christian church in the world)Venice: By late 1500s assume leadership of the Renaissance.Dominates trade with AsiaGoverned by a Republic

  • VeniceRepublic headed by a Doge (Duke)The council of ten (wealthiest merchants) had the real political power.Revenue generated via tariffs.Artists flocked to this commercial center.Artists emphasized realism and secular activities, Human Emotions.

  • Architecture returns to classical styleItalian RenaissanceBrunelleschiCreated the Cathedral of FlorencePlay Video

  • SculptorsDonatello1st to cast in bronze since the ancients.MichelangeloStatue of DavidGhiberti10 magnificent New Testament Scenes

  • PaintingRealisticEmphasizing Human EmotionsDaVinci

  • DaVinciDAVINCI

  • Michelangelo-Sistine ChapelChrist giving the key to St. Peter

  • The Renaissance filters to the NorthFranceEnglandNetherlands

  • The Northern RenaissanceSpread of the Renaissance to Northern CountriesWar Spreads it1494 France invades ItalyKing Frances I becomes fascinated w/Italian Renaissance fashion and art.

  • Brings Leonardo Da Vinci and others to FranceOther rulers in North follow bring humanists to their country

  • Spread of Renaissance Cont.TradersNew found wealth amongst the Northern merchants begin to spend money on (values) education, arts, fine goods and expensive housing.TravelTo Italy to study w/Italian masters

  • Newly educated middle classknowledge among middle class aided by the invention of the printing press.

  • Printing pressJohannes GutenbergAbout 1440 German metal workerUsed moveable typeResult: publish books more quickly and less expensive

  • Northern Scholars adapt Italian Renaissance to fit better their needs.

  • The French RenaissanceUnique-blended French medieval Gothic with the classical columns used by Italian architects to create the Chateaux (castles)Francis I and Nobles built large country estates.

  • Chateaux

  • French WritersPierre Ronsard-own sonnets inspired by Petrarch. Wrote on love, passing youth and immortality

  • Michel de MontaigneAutobiographyPersonal EssayShort Phrase compositionExpress clearly personal viewDisadvantage of royaltyA heavy burden to be a king.

  • Francois Rabelais (RA-buh-lay)Most popular of French authorsWrote on many topics-themes were of rejecting Middle Ages focus on the after life.People should enjoy life to the fullestWrote on law, medicine, politics, theology & navigation

  • Northern Europe

  • GermanyAccepted Italian RenaissanceUniversities and schools promoted the humanist learningLatin still the scholarly language (increase in German and Dutch)

  • Christian HumanismMore religious toneWanted reform in the Catholic ChurchBelieved that humanist learning and Bible study were the best way to promote these goals

  • Most Famous Christian HumanistDesiderius (Dez-ih-deer-ee-us) ErasmusInspired colleagues to study Greek and HebrewCan understand older versions of the Bible.Take a more critical view of the Catholic Church.

  • He attacked the extravagances of the Renaissance Popes.Noted work, The Praise of FollyDescribes these popes as no longer practiced Christians.

  • Quote from Erasmus: Scarce any kind of men live more devoted to pleasure or with less troublesTo work miracles isnot in fashion now;to instruct the people, troublesome; to interpret scripture; to pray, a sign one has little else to do

  • Play Video

  • Northern European PaintersTheir style relies more on Medieval than classical models1400s Flemish painters Jan & Hubert Eyck (EYEK) painted scenes from the Bible and daily life in sharp realistic detail

  • Developed TechniquesDeveloped painting in oilsGives richer colorsSoon spreads to Italy-oil painting technique

  • Pieter Brueghal (Broy-gahl)Combine Italian technique with artistic traditions of his homeland.Paints realistic portraits, landscapes and scene from peasant life.

  • The English RenaissanceIdeas of Renaissance did not spread to England until 1485---War of the RosesendsHenry VII invites Italian Renaissance scholars to EnglandTeach Humanism

  • Thomas More-English StatesmanWrites Utopia in LatinCriticizes today's society and compares it to a perfect society

  • William ShakespeareDrew ideas from Medieval Legends and classical mythology.History of England, Denmark and Rome.

  • Play video

  • Christopher MarloweWrote on: humanistic qualities such as:Love, jealousy, ambition, and despair.

  • Plays are still relevant todayStill done.

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