renaissance – “rebirth” 1350-1550

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Renaissance – “Rebirth” 1350-1550. Return of Greco-Roman Influence. Economic Factors. Trade Banking – Medici of Florence Patronage – did not just sit on money. Trends. Secular period w/ a religious connection Catholic Church would be a large patron of arts Italian vs. Northern Renaissance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Renaissance

Return of Greco-Roman InfluenceRenaissance Rebirth1350-1550TradeBanking Medici of FlorencePatronage did not just sit on moneyEconomic Factors

Secular period w/ a religious connectionCatholic Church would be a large patron of artsItalian vs. Northern RenaissanceHumanism what can humans achieveNot a mass movement still social class limitsWill span 200 yrs and affect Europe at different timesTime period will coincide with start of religious wars, new political structures and an age of explorationTrendsNorthern cities communes dominated by merchant guilds wealthy families oligarchiesPopolo disenfranchisedMerchant families used condottieri w/ mercenary armies to ruleSome cities became signoriRivalries and lack of rights for poor = instabilityItalian PoliticsItalys advantage: geographyProsperous c-s emerged b/c of trade5 Major Powers dominated by 15th centuryMilan, Florence, Venice, Papal States, Naples

The Italian City-State

Florence: Cosimo de Medici: wealthiest individual, took control of oligarchy(Medici maintained republican forms of government for appearance sake but controlled behind scenes)Despotism

Despots: job was to maintain orderFrequently assassinated

Ambassadors: created to negotiate among c-s

Despotism5 major city states controlled smaller states competed for landFeeling isolated duke of Milan invited the French to intervene1494 French King Charles VIII occupied NaplesItaly became battleground between Habsburgs ValoisNo unification til 1870Weakness of the Italian States

Form of Education and culture based on the study of the classics Greek and RomanLiberal Studies or Liberal ArtsPetrarch father of Humanism recovered old textsPlatonic Academy Marsilio Ficiino lectured under patronage of Cosimo de MediciPico della Mirandola On the Dignity of Man man can achieve all thingsVirtuLuomo universalHumanismSchools with Latin grammar and rhetoric, Roman history and political philosophyNot a means to an end theology/philosophy and training for lawyers and physicians medieval Goal of education became civic humanismWomen excluded except wealthy who could afford private tutorsCastiglione The CourtierEducationMachiavelli favored republican government but saw first hand power politics in ItalyThe Prince function of ruler is to preserve order and security First to abandon morality as basis for analysis of politicsFounder of modern secular power politicsPolitical ThoughtBecame a vehicle to push the Protestant ReformationUsed wisdom to challenge injustice in societyLargely the struggles of the Catholic ChurchThomas More Utopia perfect worldErasmus Praise of Folly satire urging for simpler Christian faithGutenbergs printing press increased literacy Christian Humanism

Emphasis on secular themes but did not totally lose religious connectionClassic Greek and Roman idealsRealism use of perspective and proportionPatronized by wealthy merchant class and papacyRenaissance Art

Van Eyck most popularNorthern art more concerned with Christianity than with Greek and Roman themesReflection of turmoil of Protestant ReformationNorthern Renaissance

Arnolfini Wedding (Jan van Eyck) 1450s: attempts were made to reestablish centralized power of the monarchymonarchs obsessed with the expansion of political power & landNot new concept, but defined beginnings of extension of centralized royal authority

"New Monarchies"Effected by 100 yrs. WarLoss of lifeDestroyed farmlandsUnruly nobilityCharles VIIEstablished royal armyLevied taille (annual direct tax on land) Gabelle (tax on salt) "New Monarchies"- FRANCE

1422-1461Louis XIKnown as the Spider kingTypically called founder of the French national stateAttained parts of BurgundyEncouraged growth of industry & commerce"New Monarchies"- FRANCE

1461-1483War of the RosesBroke out in the 1450sCivil war, placing house of Lancaster (red rose) vs. house of York (white rose)1485: Henry Tudor defeated last Yorkist King"New Monarchies"- ENGLAND

Henry VIIWorked to reduce internal disorderCreated Court of Star Chamber: tried to eliminate unfair tacticsAvoided wars (also avoided calling Parliament)Encouraged commercial activities"New Monarchies"- ENGLAND

1485-1509Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon marry in 1469Dynastic union, not politicalBoth kingdoms maintained own parliaments (Cortes), courts, laws, etc.Had best army in Europe by 16th century

"New Monarchies"- Spain

Ferdinand & IsabellaRecognized importance of controlling the Catholic ChurchSecured from popethe right to select most powerful church officials

"New Monarchies"- Spain

Wedding portrait, Ferdinand & Isabella 1469 Ferdinand and Isabella cont.Introduced Inquisition in 14781492 expelled all professed Jews (approx. 150,000 out of 200,000 fled)1502 all professed Muslims expelledTo be Spanish was to be Catholic

"New Monarchies"- Spain

Maximilian I cont.Real success: marriage of his son Philip of Burgundy to Joanna (daughter of Ferdinand & Isabella)Philip and Joanna had Charles (through a series of deaths, became heir to the Hapsburg, Burgundian, and Spanish thrones)

"New Monarchies"- HRE

1493-1519Europe divided into 3 Estatespray, fight and workNobility 2-3% but dominateBook of the CourtierFundamental handbook for aristocracySocial Classes

Social ClassesThe Book of the CourtiercontinuedDescribed 3 attributes: 1. grace, character, noble birth2. participate in military, follow standard of conduct3. receive a classical education, play instruments, draw, paint

Third Estate - 85-90% of populationMost worked land little to no powerSome found advancement in cities but key to understand majority did not benefit from RenaissanceSocial ClassesSecond half of the 15th century: Italians introduced slavery on a large scaleUsed as skilled workers, or household workersMost slaves were girls: serving as nursemaidsPrimarily obtained from the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea regionsBy 16th century slavery had declined dramatically

Slavery in the Ren.Querelle des femmes gains ground during RenaissanceChristine de Pizan Printing PressElizabeth IIsabella de Este Patron of ArtsGender Question

Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503)Openly supported 4 sonsCesare BorgiaNepotismJulius II (1503-1513)Warrior PopeTears down St. Peters Erasmus will criticize him in - Julius Excluded From HeavenLeo X (1513-1521)Son of Lorenzo de MediciConflicts with LutherSecular Papacy

Europe had been isolated for hundreds of years now prompted by 3 GsNew Tech provided the muscleCompetition in Europe led to competition abroadAge of Exploration3 Gs Gold, God, GloryResources!!!Central and South America for silver and goldNorth America for natural resourcesAfrica for SlavesPre 1517 focus Europe fighting the Muslims After 1517 focusspreading Christianity to new lands you cant let the heretics get to them first!The more wealth a country had = more power in war!Victory over your enemies was everything!Compass and astrolabeCaravelPtolemys GeographyPrince Henry the Navigator of PortugalPatron of geography and navigationTechnology

1487 Diaz1498 da GamaPortugal Leads the Way

ColumbusItalian90 menReached Hispaniola (thought it was Asia)100,000 - 300

Treaty of Tordesillas 1494

Columbian ExchangeThe contact between the Old World and the New World that led to an exchange of plants, animals, and diseases that changed life on both sides of the Atlantic.

Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE Syphilis Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox Flu Typhus Measles Malaria Diptheria Whooping Cough Trinkets Liquor GUNSWorld Economy Begins

Population Growth70 million in 1500 90 million in 1600New foods support growing popPrice Revolution16th century Europe experienced inflation in pricesInflux of gold and demand from pop growthNation-centered economies as opposed to guildsJoint-stock companiesPutting out or domestic systemMercantilism nations power depends on wealth which is tied to favorable balance of tradeCommercial RevolutionDecline of traditional trade networksHanseatic League and Italian city-states lose out to nation-statesRise of CapitalismCapital is invested to establish wealthPrivate ownershipRise of BourgeoisieCommercial capitalism creates a new middle classExploitation of inferior peopleRivalries develop between competing nationsConsequences

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