recovery and rebirth: the age of the renaissance

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  • Slide 1
  • Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance
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  • Characteristics & Meaning of Renaissance Recovery from 14 th C Essentially urban phenomenon Rediscovery of classical antiquity Emphasis on individual ability
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  • Economic Recovery Italian cities lose preeminence due to Plague Hanseatic League grow in power Compete w/ Med city-states Textile industry rivaled by printing, mining, & metallurgy Venetians contd development of commercial empire Banking flourishes in Florence w/ new profits from textiles
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  • Social Changes in the Renaissance
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  • 2 - 3 % of population Military & political posts Concession from centralizing rulers More costs & less profits of 14 th C Education: Key to advancement Baldassare Castiglione The Book of the Courtier Service to the prince Modest, but proud? Classical ed Impeccable character (nobles born w/ grace) Martial skill The Nobility
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  • Peasants and Townspeople 85-90% of population (Rising econ + new ag techniques) x plague costs = (Decline of manorialism + contd erosion of serfdom) Lords found more profitable to hire workers
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  • Social Stratification in Cities Peasants as hired workers After ruin of plague, towns grew in pop Social status in cities developed & grew Patricians: old $, commercial banking; dominated local govt Petty burghers: artisans, shopkeepers, guild masters/members Property-less workers Unemployed 30-40% of pop
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  • Ag slavery declines, largely replaced by serfdom by 9th C Reappears in 11 th C; grows rapidly, esp. after BD steals workers Skilled workers needed in Italy Household workers wanted across Europe Concubines for wealthy patricians Obtained from the eastern Med, Black Sea region, Africa, & Spain Wars b/t Christians & Muslims bring fresh infidels to each side Declines in Italy by end of 15th century (except in royal courts) Portuguese import 140,000 from Africa between 1444 and 1505 Replace European slaves Slavery in the Renaissance
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  • The Family in Renaissance Italy Extended in nature Multi-generational living Often almost like communes (families w/ parents in large villas Usually echoed feudal order Autocratic Father center of family Mother over females; usually much younger Eldest brother replaces; Eldest wife Marriages Arranged for social & econ advance Role of the wife Primary role to bear children High mortality rates childbirth, infancy, & early childhood
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  • Italian States of Renaissance Era
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  • Five most powerful city-states: Milan Venice Florence Naples Papal States 2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license. Five Major States
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  • Prior to 1447, ruled by Visconti family Briefly repub before former condittiero Francesco Sforza claimed control by marrying Visconti daughter & paid HRE for title Highly organized & profitable tax & govt admin Controlled Lombardy Duchy of Milan
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  • Maritime powerhouse Controlled northwestern Italy & Western Adriatic Borghesia-aristocrat oligarchy govt Commercial empire Elected Doge (dux) acted as chief admin Fear of Venice led to Florentine-Milanese alliance Republic of Venice
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  • Dominated Tuscany @start of 15 th C, controlled by borghesian oligarchy 1434: Cosimo Medici assumes control Kept appearance of repub, but ran govt as grey eminence Thru LAVISH patronage of arts, made Florence center of Renaissance Republic of Florence
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  • Medici Hall of Fame CosimoCosimo GiovanniBicciGiovanniBicci LorenzoLorenzo GiulianiGiuliani GiovanniGiovanni GiulioGiulio
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  • Giovanni di Bicci Masaccio & Brunelleschi
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  • Cosimo
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  • Lorenzo
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  • Florence Under the Medici As power grew, all pretense of oligarchy (let alone democracy) fell Cosimo content to be grey eminence; Piero sickly, Lorenzo powerful, but generous Exiled under Piero II (1494-1512) ; restored to power in 1530 After Lorenzos death, Girolamo Savonarola came to power establishing a republic/theocracy Botticelli renounced painting Weirdly, Pico della Mirandola was a friend Condemnations of Pope Alex VI resulted in his death Medici assumed power again under Alessandro II (Il Moro)
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  • A New Generation Rises After Allessandros murder by a cousin, a junior branch of Medici (children of Cosimos brother Lorenzo) assumed control of Florence under Cosimo I, Duke of Tuscany (1537) This line would rule for 200 years (when a Hapsburg family that married into the Medici would take over)
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  • Independent City-States
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  • Urbino Federico da Montefeltro, (1444- 1482) Took over after brother died, but continued in his profession as condottiero Fought for Milan, Florence, Ferrara Made Urbino into a Renaissance center- second largest library Named Duke of Urbino by pope Sixtus, named Gonfaliere of the Church (mil cdr) Surgeons removed bridge of his nose after a fight- improved line of sight for left eye
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  • Mantua Controlled by Gonzaga family Married into Paleologi family Also condottieri even after rise Isabella dEste (1474-1539) ruled after hubby Francesco died. First woman of Renaissance Accomplished musician, Greek & Latin scholar Patron of arts Leonardo Titian Raphael
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  • Ferrara
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  • Wars in Lombardy: 1425-1454 Venice v. Milan Peace of Lodi: 1454 Balance of power Milan, Florence, & Naples allied against Venice & Papal States Warfare in Italy
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  • Troubles w/ Spain & France France dominated Naples & Milan Francis I Allied with Pope & Suleiman Aragon (later Spain) allied w/ remaining city- states Carlos I (aka Charles V) sacked Rome Had Naples, 2 Sicilies; got Milan back after Pavia
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  • Birth of Modern Diplomacy For smaller city-states to survive, resident agents sent to other city states Due to influence of France/Spain, agents sent to other countries Ambassadors developed from this In 16 th & 17 th C, mod dip practices developed Rights of ambassadors Procedures for conducting intl affairs
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  • Duke of Valentinois, Duke of Romagna, Prince of Andria and Venafro, Count of Dyois, Lord of Piombino, Camerino, and Urbino, Gonfalonier of the Church Captain General of the Church, Bishop of Pamplona Cardinal of Valencia Machiavelli and the New Statecraft Niccol Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince Political power to restore and maintain order Humanity is self-centered Ends justifies the means Based his work on life of Cesare Borgia Dedicated it to Medici Currying favor b/c they had previously exiled him
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  • Italian Renaissance Humanism Liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history) Emergence of Humanism Petrarch (1304-1374) Rejected scholastic philosophy Emphasize classics Humanism in 15 th C Italy Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444) Civic humanism Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457) Literary criticism of ancient texts Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459) Criticism of the church
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  • Humanism and Philosophy Marsilio Ficino (1433-99) Synthesis of Christianity & Platonism Florentine Platonic Academy Hermeticism Occult sciences Theological and philosophical beliefs and speculation Pico della Mirandola (1463-94) Common nuggets of universal truth
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  • Education in the Renaissance Vittorino da Feltre (1378- 1446) Humanist education Pietro Paolo Vergerio (1370-1444) Liberal arts education History, moral philosophy, rhetoric, letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music Women Renaissance man
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  • Humanism and History Secularism of history Miracles downplayed Natural causation Francesco Guicciardini (1483-1540) Modern analytical historiography History of Italy & History of Florence
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  • Impact of Printing Johannes Gutenberg Movable metal type, 1445- 1450 Bible, 1455 or 1456 Spread rapidly Venice alone home to 1k printers Development of scholarly research Lay reading public 50% religious in nature Latin/Greek classics Romances grew increasingly popular
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  • The Artistic Renaissance
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  • Early Renaissance Masaccio (1401-1428) Frescos Paolo Uccello (1397- 1475) Laws of perspective
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  • Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) Greek and Roman mythology Donato di Donatello (1386-1466) David Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) Architecture Piero della Francesca (c. 1410-1492) Portraits
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  • The High Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Realism and idealism Raphael (1483-1520) Ideal of beauty Michelangelo (1475-1564) Divine beauty Donato Bramante (1444-1514) Architecture
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  • Artist and Social Status Artist as hero Financial gains
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  • The Northern Artistic Re


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