renaissance “rebirth”. proportion anatomy perspective
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15th centuryGrowthDiscoveryCommerce WealthKnowledgeArts
Cities were important forTradingIndustry
FlorenceCapital of cloth tradeRiches banking house
Renaissance took place duringRebellionsWarsPolitical instabilityEconomical instabilitythe Plague
InventionsPrinting press by GutenbergUsed in Germany, France, England and Italy
3 classes of people
Chain of beingGodAristocracyChurchPeasantsChickensWomen
Middle ClassChange came from merchantsInfluenced by trade, finance and industry
Growth in wealth increased # educatedGrowth in the Arts
HumanismNew philosophyHuman intelligence seemed limitlessWorks of humans have value in themselves and were not in the service of the ChurchArts, science, wisdom, knowledge and the earth itself were in the service of humanityhumanism rejects the validity of transcendental justifications, such as a dependence on belief without reason, the supernatural, or text of allegedly divine origin.
Renaissance ArtistsGhibertiAlbrecht DrerLeonardo da VinciMichelangelo RaphaelStudiedGeology, Botany, Anatomy, Geometry and MathematicsUsed to be thought of a Craftspeople, employees of the church
Masaccio The Tribute Money fresco, 1427.
MasaccioIn his mid-20sStart of visual perspective and textureMany young painters joined the Florentine Painters GuildVanishing point
Fresco- A method of painting on plaster, either dry (dry fresco or fresco secco) or wet (wet or true fresco). In the wet method, pigments are applied to thin layers of wet plaster so that they will be absorbed and the painting becomes part of the wall.
Filippo Brunelleschi1377-1466Known for the cupola (dome on the Cathedral of Florence)
Goldsmith, sculptor, mathematician, builder and architectDeveloped scientific perspective
Dome built in 2 shells Linked ribs and supports are surrounded by interlocking brickwork which all work together to support dome140 feet in diameter and 300 feet above the floorCreated new uses of ramps and hoist to raise roof (unlike previous architects who looked at earlier structures for building concepts
Sculpture Roman sculptureRenaissance sculptureinfluenced
Lorenzo Ghiberti1381-1455Sculpted Sacrifice of Isaac panel for doors of baptistery of FlorenceCompetition entry for the doors Ghiberti later made
Sculpted Sacrifice of Isaac panel for doors of baptistery of FlorenceFrom same door as Ghibertis pieceCompetition entry by Filippo Brunelleschi
Competition for the doors 2 things stood out: aesthetics and moneyGhibertis design had the design and was cost effective as he used bronze gilding techniqueGilding to cover surface in a thin layer of metal (usually gold) similar to gold plating21 year old Ghiberti won the competitionTook more than 20 years to complete
The Gates of ParadiseAfter doing such a good job on the doors Ghibertis was commissioned to create the doors for the East side of the baptistery.The doors were later called The Gates of ParadiseThere were 10 larger square panelsEach panel was cast in bronze and covered in gold (gilded)
Ghiberti Gates of Paradise or East doors of the baptistry of Florence Cathedral 1425-1452Made of bronze and Gilt gold
Donatello1386-1466Sculptor32 Life-size or large pieces were create outdoors in Florence Donatello is acknowledged as the best sculptor of his dayHe mastered Contrapposto (based on Greek body stance) (suggests action or shifting of body weight)Best seen in his sculpture of David
Donatellos David 1430-1432Bronze 158cm highFirst freestanding nude since ancient timesFacial expression depicts idea of pride, dignity and self-reliance
RealisticCommissioned by Cosimo de MediciDesigned to be seen from all anglesHead was crowned with contemporary soldier headgear and laurel wreath combining ancient and contemporary traditions
Sandro Botticelli1445-1510Painted Birth of VenusBased on traditional mythologyVenus, the goddess of love, rises from the sea in a shell
On the left, West Winds looking like angels push her towards landOne the right, Spring is ready to toss a robe around Venus unclothed bodyBotticellis Birth of Venus 1482. Tempra on canvas
Mythological scenes were considered metaphors for Christian ideas.Spring = Christ / baptism / John the Baptist
Signifies the rebirth of humanity
Botticelli was a master of delicate lines, as seen in figures and fabrics
His use of pale colours and the floating appearance of the figures add to the fantasy of the subject
Birth of Venus was one of the first Italian works on canvas instead of panel
Botticelli's The Adoration of the Magi 1470s. Tempera on Panel
Botticelli's Adoration of the Magi
Wise men and others who have come to see Holy FamilyModels in piece are portraits of Italian contemporariesMan in bottom right is a self portrait of the artistThe composition is calm at the center and becomes active towards the outsideThe aspects of the painting are depicted as elegant and luxurious
High RenaissanceBetween 1495 and 1527 there were a series of powerful and ambitious popes who created a papal state with Rome as its capital (The Papal States comprised those territories over which the Pope was the ruler in a civil as well as a spiritual sense before 1870. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_States)Popes lived in luxury and embellished the city with great works of artThey shipped in artists and provided them with challenging and exciting commissionsHigh renaissance only last 20 years but produced art that influenced European art for at least 3 centuries
RenaissanceHigh RenaissanceArtists started to be viewed as geniuses rather than craftsperson's. It was widely believed that artists, like poets, created their work under divine inspiration.Artists often disregarded rules of the early Renaissance and let their feelings dictate their styles. This led to more expressive work.Early RenaissanceArtists relied on formulas, scientific perspective, ratios, and proportions to structure their work
Leonardo da Vinci1452-1519Artist/ Genius in painting, sculpture, architecture, engineering, military science, botany, anatomy, geology, aerodynamics and optics.Not only was he interested in these fields, but he was also considered an expert in all of them. renaissance man
Leonardo da VinciHe compiled 10 000 pages of drawings and ideasInvented the parachute and helicopter
Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper 1495-1498Wall FrescoImage of Christ and the apostles celebrating PassoverExperimented with new techniques: dry plaster with oil and tempera mixture (chipped off immediately/ oil water dont mix)Only 4% is estimated to still be original
Movie worthy controversy
The Mysterious knife without a visible body
Body positions look like they were originally placed together
Hand is awkwardly place on her shoulder?Hand is hanging in mid air.Was it originally on her back?In the Da Vinci Code movie, Mary Magdalene is thought to be Jesus Christs lover and that is just part of the cover-up which lives in da Vincis artworks.
Da Vincis Mona Lisa1503-1506. Oil on panelHis favorite painting and he carried it around with him his entire lifePainted using chiaroscuro: the extreme contrast of dark and lightDistant hills and mountains are partially obscured by a light haze, also know as sfumato, an effect that allowed Leonardo to create a feeling of enormous depth
Da Vincis Mona LisaSome say her image is quite similar to his ownCould this be the source of the smile that has intrigued so many?
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 February 18, 1564)
MichelangeloWas an Italian renaissance painter, sculpture. Architect, poet and engineer.In his lifetime he was also often called Il Divino ("the divine one)Two of his best-known works, the Pieta and the David, were sculpted before he turned thirty.
Two of his best-known works, the Pieta and the David, were sculpted before he turned thirty.
DavidDavid is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture sculpted by Michelangelo from 1501 to 1504. The 5.17 meter of marble statue portrays the biblical King David in the nude, at the moment that he decides to battle with Goliath. It came to symbolize the defense of civic liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici themselves.
PietaIs located in St. Peters Basilica in Vatican City. The statue was commissioned for the French Cardinal Jena de Billheres, who was a representative in Rome. This famous work of art depicts the body of Jesus on the lap of his mother Mary after the Crucifixion. Michelangelo's interpretation of the Piet is unique to the precedents. It is an important work as it balances the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty with naturalism. The statue is one of the most highly finished works by Michelangelo.
The Sistine ChapelMichelangelo also created two of the most influential works in Fresco in the history of Western art: the Scenes from Genesis on the ceiling and The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.
The Sistine chapel ceiling took approximately 4 years to complete.
The composition eventually contained over 300 figures