the renaissance era part 2:. the renaissance era ~1425 - 1600 french word for "rebirth" a recovery...
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The Renaissance EraPart 2:
The Renaissance Era~1425 - 1600
French word for "rebirth"A recovery or ideals from antiquity after the Middle Ages (or "Dark Ages")Humanismhuman interests and values science, philosophy, literature, painting, sculpture, and musicArts and sciences were revived.
The Renaissance Era
Economic growthKingdoms, duchies, city-states got bigger and richer - increased demand for the arts"Renaissance Man"knowledge of a variety of arts and sciencesHuman reason and individualityMovable type: mid-15th century Music printing by 1500
Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther Composer William Byrd, a Catholic in Protestant EnglandCounter-Reformation: attempts to hold onto the Catholic liturgy and doctrine in the face of ProtestantismMusic to move the souls of the faithful
Portrait of Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach the ElderTheologian and a composer Wrote "A Mighty Fortress is Our God"German monk who nailed a list of complaints against the Catholic Church on the door of a church in Wittenberg
Words and music together in unityPolyphonyequal voice parts3, 4, 5, or even 6 partsFull, rich sound with intricate texture and rhythmStrong attention to text being sung, even when polyphonic melodies were complex
Musicians accompany dancing lord and ladyRenaissance art was inspired by rediscovered classical Greek models: sense of perspective, considerable detail in the faces, realistic portrayal of the individual figures
Josquin des Prez The Cricket
The CricketPolyphonicSoprano (highest range, usually female)Alto (second-highest range, usually female)Tenor (second-lowest range, male)Bass (lowest range, male)Voices move together rhythmically throughout much of the piece
The CricketCounterpoint:Each voice melodic; not melody + accompanimentCan be intricate and complexFrom the Latin, contrapunctum, meaning "note-against-note"In this recording, all 4 voices are male. The upper two voices are sung in falsettoWritten so it could be played on instruments OR sung. Typical in the Renaissance Period
Playing and SingingAs shown here, songs were often performed with instruments doubling or filling in one or more of the vocal lines
The CricketMusic written to a humorous poem; enhances the spirit of the poetryUses word paintinglong notes on "hold a long line" chirping sounds which imitate a cricketHumorous "drunken" musiclong melisma on "love"Form: Three parts = ternary formDescribed as ABA: contrast (B is in contrast to A both textually and musically) and return (to A)
Josquin des Prez
ca. 1450-1521 Much of his life is shrouded in mysteryGreatest composer of the early RenaissanceAn international celebrity in his timeHired by Duke of Ferrara to be a composer for his courtThere may have been several composers named JosquinA Bovine QuartetMedieval and Renaissance scribes often inserted humorous vignettes into otherwise very serious manuscripts
Josquin des PrezOther Compositions
Missa Pange Lingua (a Mass)Missa La Sol Fa Re Mi (another Mass)Ave Maria. . . virgo serena (4-voice motet)Illibata Dei virgo nutrix (5-voice motet)
Thomas Weelkes Since Robin Hood
Since Robin HoodA song about an actual event that took place in 1599:William Kemp: an English actor and friend of Shakespeare danced from London to Norwich, a distance of some 140 miles, over the course of nine days.A feat of shameless self-promotionDanced the Morris dancefrom the same tradition as Tielman Susatos Moorish Dance (see Web Bonus chapter 2)Since Robin HoodMadrigalmost important type of secular songTexture: polyphonic throughout; 3 voicesRhythm: declamatory; voices move together mostly in the same rhythmMelody: The melody in the top voice was well known; the lower two melodies are distinctiveWord painting (or madrigalism):
Since Robin HoodPoetic MeterOpening: iambic (short-LONG or weak-STRONG)
Second section = trochaic (LONG-short or STRONG-weak)
Third section = iambic for one line; anapestic for 2 lines (short-short-LONG or weak-weak-STRONG)
Musical MeterOpening lines: duple meterbeats 1 and 3 are emphasized in a 4-beat measureSecond section shifts to triple meteraccented words get 2 beats; later, music returns so duple meter but notes are syncopatedThird section: duple meter, first line syncopated
Chichester CathedralWhere Thomas Weelkes served as an organist
ca. 1575-1623English composer, lived during age of Shakespeare, and during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James IProfessional musician with a degree in music from New College, OxfordFascinated with Italian poetry and musicAlso wrote sacred musicOrganist at Chichester CathedralLost his job at the Cathedral because of blasphemy and drunkenness
Other Composers of MadrigalsEnglish:William ByrdJohn FarmerOrlando GibbonsThomas MorleyJohn Wilbye
Italian:Jacob ArcadeltCipriano de Rore Luzzascho LuzzaschiLucca Marenzio Claudio MonteverdiMusicians as SpiesIn Elizabethan England at the end of the sixteenth century, playing an instrument provided the perfect cover for gathering intelligence.
William Byrd Sing Joyfully
Sing JoyfullyA sacred work to be sung in churchText is based on first 4 verses of Psalm 81.This is an anthemEnglish equivalent of Catholic motetA cappella choral musicForm: Sectional with cadences sometimes elidedEach new section of the text has a new musical ideaElision: new line of text and music begins before previous one has completely stopped
The sound of the All-Male ChoirWomen were not generally permitted to sing in church choirs until well into the eighteenth century. Boy sopranos and altos have a different sound quality than female voices.
Sing JoyfullyTexture: polyphony in 6 voicesUses imitative counterpointone voice introduces a melody/text, and is imitated by the other voices in succession.First voice and subsequent voices continue to sing as other voices enter.A rich and luxuriant sound that gives a heightened sense of spiritualityThe challenge is to exploit the potentials of 6 voices without obscuring the textSing JoyfullyWord painting examples:"sing joyfully"lively, upward-moving musical theme"blow the trumpet"fanfare-like singing, with echoes"For this is a statute for Israel"singing in declamatory style (all in rhythm together) as if declaring a lawPerformers: all male choir; women not allowed to sing in church
Queen Elizabeth Ibeing carried through the streets of London by her courtiers. William Byrd, a Roman Catholic, had to be careful in the court of the Protestant Queen.
1542-1623An English Roman Catholic in the Protestant court of Queen Elizabeth ISuffered harassment because of his faithHad a monopoly on the printing of music in England for a short timeWrote a great deal of music for the Protestant (Anglican) churchSome other compositionsMass for Four VoicesO Lord, Make Thy Servant Elizabeth- a motet"This Sweet and Merry Month of May"- a madrigal
Palestrina presents his first book of masses to Pope Julius IIIPalestrina was a contemporary of William ByrdLived in ItalyWas a composer of the Counter- Reformationa Catholic movement that was a response to the Protestant Reformation
Other Composers of Sacred Renaissance MusicEngland:Thomas TallisGermany:Martin LutherJohann Walter Italy:Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Spain:Toms Luis de Victoria
Rhyming Singers of the BahamasMy Lord Help Me to Pray
My Lord Help Me to PrayA polyphonic piece from the Bahamas (19th century)Sung by sponge fishermen passing time on their boatsA type of rhyme singingBased on gospel textsSung in 3 parts, each with different wordsResembles polytextual works of 13th century Cathedral of Notre Dame in this respectLead singer is called the rhyme
My Lord Help Me to PrayAn African-American syncretismTexture: 3 parts: Rhyme singer (leader)Treble singerBass singerCall-and-responseas the song progresses, the calls and responses overlap to create a thick polyphonic texture
My Lord Help Me to PrayIntonations:Rhyme line: varied, improvised, descendingTreble line: 2 halvesa ascends and pauses; tone; b descends and resolves on lowest toneBass line: 2 essential tones that provide basic harmonic supportRhymed coupletsCall: changes; ex. "Oh Lord, what a faithful soul"Response: always "My Lord, help me to pray."Later: an embellished version of The Lords Prayer, while Treble continues to sing the response.
Bob MarleyThe Caribbean islands are filled with rich and varied musical styles. Marley, a performer, composer, and political activist, popularized reggae, a style closely associated with the Rastafarian religion.
Call and Response
Find a piece that contains a leadvocalist who states the melody(call) and a vocal group thatresponds to him or her (response).
Example: Nelly Furtado andTimbaland, Promiscuous (2006)Furtado sings a verse and thenTimbaland responds.Tielman Susato Moorish Dance
Moorish DanceMusic for Dancingpopular during Renaissance PeriodWilliam Byrd and Tielman Susato both important composers of dance musicMoresca = Moorish Dancedepicted combat between Moors (Muslims) and ChristiansUsed as entertainment, in parades, or between acts of dramatic entertainmentSimilar to English Morris dancingfacial masks, bells on legs
Moorish Dance:EnsembleSackbut and cornetto were forerunners of the trombone and trumpet, respectively
As in the violin family, viols come in many different sizesMoorish DanceProminent instruments = highest (recorders) loudest (sackbuts and cornettos)Percussion: provides steady beat for dancingDance Music:Must have steady beat to facilitate the stepsRepetition and alterna