two renaissances italian renaissance italian renaissance renaissance, or rebirth of art and...
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TWO RENAISSANCESItalian Renaissance Renaissance, or rebirth of art and learning, 1350-1600Aristocrats, popes, nobles became wealthy patrons and vied to outdo one anotherCity-states sponsored innovations in art and architecture Renaissance architecture Simple, elegant style, inherited from classical Greek and Roman Magnificent domed cathedrals St. Peters in RomeHumanists or Man is the Measure of All Things Drew inspiration from classical models especially Greece, RomeLeading scholars included Dante, PetrarchScholars interested in humane lettersAttention to political and social issues and graces, tooNorthern RenaissanceEspecially strong in France, England, NetherlandsFocus was more on science, math, and Christianity (language favored was Hebrew)Strongly supported by the middle classes and minor noblesLeading figures include Shakespeare, Durer, Erasmus, Protestant reformers
PROTESTANT REFORMATIONPrecursors to LutherGreat Schism2/3 popes at same time undermined authority of the churchChurch councils rule/attempt to overrule popesJan Hus in Holy Roman Empire and Wycliffe in EnglandBoth attacked aspects of church corruption, wealth, practicesBoth condemned by ChurchHus executed, but Wycliffe protected by King of EnglandWycliffe had Bible translated into EnglishMartin Luther (1483-1546) Attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517 Attacked corruption in Catholic Church; called for reform Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read Enthusiastic response from lay Christians, princes, many cities By mid-16th century, half Germans adopted LutheranismReform spread outside Germany Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, NetherlandsScandinavian kings like movement as it removes Church as a rival English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorceJohn Calvin, French convert to Protestantism Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s Calvinist missionaries were successful in France
The Catholic Church Reformed ItsS.I.N.S.
S.Society of Jesus (Jesuits) proselytized for Catholic ChurchFounded by Ignatius of Loyola. Jesuit Achievements:Strengthened Popes control.Organized schools.Won back most of Europe for Catholic Church.
I.Inquisition: church court to punish Protestant heretics
Accused heretics were identified by the general population and brought before the inquisition. They were given a chance to confess their heresy against the Catholic Church and were also required to name other heretics.
Trial of Galileo
If they confessed and turned in others they were either released or sentenced to prison. If they did not then they were publicly they were publicly executed. (burned alive!)
N.No more indulgences
S.Stop spread of Protestants: 30 Years War -Hapsburgs (Catholic rulers of Holy Roman Empire) fight Protestant princes in Northern Germany
Reformation in France-French king makes Edict of Nantes - first religious freedom law-Huguenots (French Protestants)
RELIGIOUS CONFLICTReligious wars Between Protestants, Catholics during 16TH centuryWars as much social, political as religiousNeither side is innocent of conflict Spanish ArmadaWar between Catholic Spain, Protestant England, 1588Spill over from conflict in the NetherlandsQuestion of heir to English throne: Catholic Scottish Queen or Protestant Elizabeth Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against rule of Catholic SpainOriginally began as a revolt of all Netherlands against SpainEventually split country into Catholic south (Belgium) and Protestant north (Holland) The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)The most destructive European war up to WWI Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually involved most of Europe Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states): lost one-third populationSaw rise of Sweden as Great Power and eclipse of Spain, Hapsburgs as European great powerSaw independence of Holland, Switzerland from Holy Roman EmpireEnded with Germany neither holy, nor Roman nor an Empire
NEW RELIGIOUS MAP
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONSThe reconception of the universe The Ptolemaic universeA motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres Could not account for observable movement of the planets Compatible with Christian conception of creationThe Copernican universe Copernicus suggested sun was center of universe, 1543 Implied that the earth was just another planetThe Scientific Revolution Science becomes the new authority and challenges faith for controlJohannes Kepler (1571-1630) demonstrated planetary orbits elliptical Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)With a telescope saw sunspots, moons of Jupiter, mountains of the moon Theory of velocity, falling bodies anticipated modern law of inertiaTried by Inquisition as his ideas challenged Papal infallibilityIsaac Newton (1642-1727) Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1686 Mathematical explanations of laws govern movements of bodies Newton's work symbolized the scientific revolutionDirect observation Mathematical reasoning
ENLIGHTENMENTEnlightenment Thinkers called philosophesSought natural laws that governed human society Center of Enlightenment was FranceTheory of progress was ideology of philosophesApply reason/science to society, government, law Voltaire (1694-1778) Champion of religious liberty and individual freedom Prolific writer; father of EnlightenmentJohn LockeAll human knowledge comes from sense perceptionsLife, Liberty and Property; 1689 English Bill of Rights Allowed persons to revolt against an oppressive rulerAdam Smith: laws of supply and demand determine price Montesquieu: checks, balances, balanced government Deism Popular among thinkers of EnlightenmentAccepted existence of a godDenied supernatural teachings of Christianity God the Clockmaker Ordered the universe according to rational and natural lawsImpact of Enlightenment Weakened the influence of organized religion Encouraged secular values based on reason rather than revelation Subjected society to rational analysis, promoted progress and prosperityEnlightenment applied science to every day life and made science practical