chapter 12 recovery and rebirth: the renaissance

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  • Chapter 12Recovery and Rebirth:The Renaissance

  • Timeline

  • Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian RenaissanceRenaissance = RebirthJacob Burkhardt Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)Urban SocietyAge of RecoveryRebirth of Greco-Roman cultureEmphasis on individual ability

  • The Making of Renaissance SocietyEconomic RecoveryItalian cities lose economic supremacyHanseatic LeagueManufacturingTextiles, printing, mining and metallurgyBankingFlorence and the MediciLorenzo de Medici

  • The Polish City of Gdansk An Important Member of the Hanseatic League

  • Social Changes in the RenaissanceThe NobilityReconstruction of the aristocracyAristocracy: 2 3 percent of the populationBaldassare Castiglione (1478 1529)The Book of the Courtier (1528)Service to the prince

  • Peasants and TownspeoplePeasantsPeasants: 85 90 percent of populationDecline of manorial system and serfdomUrban SocietyPatriciansPetty burghers, shopkeepers, artisans, guildmasters, and guildsmenThe poor and unemployedSlaves

  • Family and Marriage in Renaissance ItalyHusbands and WivesArranged MarriagesHusband head of householdWife managed householdChildrenChildbirthSexual Norms

  • The Italian States in the RenaissanceFive Major PowersMilanVeniceFlorenceThe MediciThe Papal StatesKingdom of NaplesIndependent City-StatesMantuaFerraraUrbinoThe Role of WomenWarfare in ItalyStruggle between France and SpainInvasion and division

  • The Birth of Modern DiplomacyModern diplomacy a product of Renaissance ItalyChanging concept of the ambassadorResident ambassadorsAgents of the territorial state

  • Machiavelli and the New StatecraftNiccolo Machiavelli (1469 1527)The PrinceAcquisition, maintenance and expansion of political powerCesare Borgia

  • Italian Renaissance HumanismClassical RevivalPetrarch (1304 1374)Humanism in Fifteenth-Century ItalyLeonardo Bruni (1370 1444)New CiceroLorenzo Valla (1407 1457)Humanism and PhilosophyMarsilio Ficino (1433 1499)Translates Platos dialoguesSynthesis of Christianity and PlatonismRenaissance HermeticismFicino, Corpus HermeticumGiovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463 1494), Oration on the Dignity of ManLeonardo BruniMarsilio FicinoGiovanni Pico della Mirandola

  • Education, History, and the Impact of PrintingEducation in the RenaissanceLiberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy and musicEducation of womenAim of education was to create a complete citizenHumanism and HistorySecularizationGuicciardini (1483 1540), History of Italy, History of FlorenceThe Impact of Printing Johannes Gutenberg Movable type (1445 1450)Gutenbergs Bible (1455 or 1456)The spread of printingJohannes Gutenberg

  • Art in the Early Renaissance

    Masaccio (1401 1428)Perspective and OrganizationMovement and Anatomical StructurePaolo Uccelo (1397 1475)The Martyrdom of Saint SebastianSandro Botticelli (1445 1510)PrimaveraDonato di Donatello (1386 1466)DavidFilippo Brunelleschi (1377 1446)The Cathedral of FlorernceChurch of San LorenzoDonatellos David

  • Masaccio, Tribute Money

  • Sandro Botticelli - Primavera

  • The Artistic High Renaissance

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452 1519)Last SupperRaphael (1483 1520)School of AthensMichelangelo (1475 1564)The Sistine ChapelMichelangelos David

  • Raphael, School of Athens

  • The Artist and Social StatusEarly RenaissanceArtists as craftsmenHigh RenaissanceArtists as heroes

  • The Northern Artistic RenaissanceJan van Eyck (c. 1380 1441)Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride

    Albrecht Drer (1471 1528)Adoration of the Magi

  • Music in the RenaissanceBurgundyGuillaume Dufay (c. 1400 1474)The Renaissance Madrigal

  • The European State in the RenaissanceThe Renaissance State in Western EuropeFranceLouis XI the Spider King (1461 1483)EnglandWar of the RosesHenry VII Tudor (1485 1509)SpainUnification of Castile and AragnEstablishment of professional royal armyReligious uniformityThe InquisitionConquest of GranadaExpulsion of the JewsLouis XI of France

  • Map 12.2: Europe in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century

  • Central, Eastern, and Ottoman EmpiresCentral Europe: The Holy Roman EmpireHabsburg DynastyMaximilian I (1493 1519)The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern EuropePolandHungaryRussiaThe Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine EmpireSeljuk Turks spread into Byzantine territoryConstantinople falls to the Turks (1453)Maximilian I

  • Map 12.4: The Ottoman Empire and Southeastern Europe

  • The Church in the RenaissanceThe Problems of Heresy and ReformJohn Wycliff (c. 1328 1384) and LollardyJohn Hus (1374 1415)Urged the elimination of worldliness and corruption of the clergyBurned at the stake (1415)Church Councils - Sacrosancta & FrequensThe Papacy - 1460 ExecrabilisThe Renaissance PapacyJulius II (1503 1513)Warrior PopeNepotismPatrons of CultureLeo X (1513 1521)Pope Leo XJohn Hus

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