LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. PART I: MEXICO

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. PART I: MEXICO. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA. LOCATION. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE MEXICOS COMMUNITIES AT RISK. HURRICANES. GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE. EARTHQUAKES. TSUNAMIS. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. PART I: MEXICO

    Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA

  • LOCATION

  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE MEXICOS COMMUNITIES AT RISK

    HURRICANES

    EARTHQUAKES TSUNAMISFLOODS

    VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

    LANDSLIDESENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCEGOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • MEXICO CITY: MEXICOS MEGACITY CAPITOL

  • MEXICOSCOMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  • TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • HURRICANESMEXICO IS AT RISK FROM HURRICANES FORMING IN THE ATLANTIC, CARIBBEAN, AND GULF OF MEXICO AS WELL AS IN THE EASTERN PACIFIC

  • WIND PENETRATING BUILDING ENVELOPEHURRICANESUPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEM FLYING DEBRISSTORM SURGE IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN

    SITING PROBLEMS FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES CAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES

  • HURRICANE DEAN

    THE FIRST NORTH ATLANTIC HURRICANE OF 2007 CAUSED DEVASTATION FROM CARIBBEAN ISLANDS TO MEXICO

    A CATEGORY 2-3 STORM ON 17 AUGUST 2007A CATEGORY 4 STORM ON 18 AUGUST 2007A CATEGORY 5 STORM ON 20 AUGUST

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL HURICANES WITHOUT ADEQUATE PROTECTION, HIGH VELOCITY WIND WILL LIFT THE ROOF OFF OF MANY BUILDINGS.

  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL HURRICANES PROTECTION MEANS THAT YOU UNDERSTAND THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH VELOCITY WIND AND PLAN IN ADVANCE.

  • COORDINATED PLANNING BY USA, MEXICO, AND CANADA President Bush met with the leaders of Mexico and Canada on Monday, August 20th to continue coordinated planning of mutual assistance before the arrival of Hurricane Dean.

  • PEMEX OIL AND GAS PLATFORM IN GULF OF MEXICO

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL HURRICANES.DISASTER-INTELLIGENT COMMUNITIES USE TIMELY EARLY WARNING BASED ON CRITICAL INFORM-ATION TO IMPROVE THE ODDS FOR SURVIVAL.

  • PATH OF DEAN: 20-21 AUGUST 2007

  • ADVANCE PREPARTIONS IN THE GULF OF MEXICOThe Gulf has 4,000 multi-million dollar oil and gas platforms and facilities that are at risk from hurricane Deans strong winds and high waves.Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 flooded oil refineries, toppled oil rigs, and cut pipelines.

  • ADVANCE PREPARTIONS OF FACILITIES AT RISK IN THE GULF Pemex, Mexicos oil company, began evacuating 13,500 workers from its oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico on Monday, August 20.Petroleos Mexicanos evacuated all 18,000 offshore workers and shut down production rigs on the Bay of Campeche. This action resulted in a loss of revenue from daily production of 2.7 million barrels of oil and 2.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas

  • FOOD AND WATER GONE; CANCUN, MEXICO: AUGUST 19

  • REMEMBERING WILMA, TOURISTS LEAVE CANCUN: AUGUST 19

  • 50,000 TOURISTS LEFT MEXICO BY AUGUST 20

  • CHETUMAL: TAKING SHELTER IN A SCHOOL; AUGUST 20

  • HURRICANE DEAN AT LANDFALL: AUGUST 21 Hurricane Dean made landfall at Majahual, Mexico as a category 5 storm with winds of 165 mi/hr. Just before landfall, Dean had a minimum central pressure of 906 millibars, the third lowest pressure after the 1935 Labor Day Hurricane in the Florida Keys and Hurricane Gilbert in 1988.

  • HURRICANE DEANS LANDFALL: AUGUST 21 Hurricane Deans landfall at Majahual, a port popular with cruise liners, was good luck for the people of Mexico. This location was a sparsely populated coastline that had already been evacuated, so none of the major resorts took a direct hit, and after a few hours, dean became a CAT 2 storm.

  • MAYANS AT RISK: AUGUST 21 Hurricane Dean threatened the Yucatans most vulnerable people the Mayans, who have not benefited from tourism or oil production. They are poor, living simple lives, in wooden slat houses susceptible to wind damage that are located in low-lying areas prone to flooding.

  • LOCATION OF MEXICOS MAYAN COMMUNITIES

  • IMPACTS IN MAJAHUALHundreds of homes collapsed in Mexicos second busiest cruise ship destination. Steel girders collapsed and wooden structures splintered from the force of the wind. About one-half the concrete dock washed away in the storm surge.

  • MAJAHUAL LANDFALL: 270 KM/HR (165 MI/HR) WINDS; AUGUST 21

  • CHETUMAL: FLOODING ON AUGUST 21

  • BACALAR: FLOODING; AUGUST 21

  • HURRICANE DEANS SECOND LANDFALL: TECOLUTLA, MEXICO

  • THE SECOND LANDFALL IN MEXICO: AUGUST 22 Hurricane Dean crossed the Bay of Campeche and made a second landfall as a category 2 storm on Wednesday, August 22. Landfall was at Tecolutla, a fishing town in the state of Veracruz on the Central Mexican coast, about 660 km (400 mi) from the border with Texas.

  • PRESIDENT FELIPE CALDERON VISITS CHETUMAL: AUGUST 22

  • STORM SURGE AND HEAVY RAINFALL: AUGUST 22 Hurricane Deans storm surge flooded Ciuidad del Carmen, a town of 120,000, with waist deep sea water. Heavy rain fall accompanying Dean, now a category 1 storm, caused rivers to rise rapidly in a region that experienced flooding and landslides in 1999.

  • MAYAN COMMUNITIES SEVERELY IMPACTED Mexicos Mayan communities have survived many damaging storms and centuries of oppression, but surviving Hurricane Deans impacts on their livelihood was one of their greatest challenge ever. The greatest impact was NOT the thousands of destroyed Mayan homes, but the loss of food.

  • EARTHQUAKESEARTHQUAKES LIKE THE SEPTEMBER 19, 1985 QUAKE OCCUR MAINLY AS A RESULT OF INTERACTIONS OF THE COCOS AND NORTH AMERICAN PLATES

  • SUBDUCTION: COCOS AND NORTH AMERICAN PLATES

  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKESPREPAREDNESS PLANNING FOR THE INEVITABLE GROUND SHAKING IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.

  • INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKINGEARTHQUAKESSOIL AMPLIFICATIONPERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP

    POOR DETAILING AND WEAK CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FRAGILITY OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSCAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES

  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKESPROTECTION OF BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.

  • SCHOOL: MEXICO CITY; M8.1 QUAKE, SEPTEMBER 19, 1985

  • MEXICO CITY-- 400 BUILDINGS IN OLD LAKE BED ZONE DAMAGED

  • HOTEL REGIS: COLLAPSE

  • TSUNAMISM8 SUBDUCTION ZONE EARTHQUAKES USUALLY GENERATE TSUNAMIS

  • TSUNAMI HAZARDTSUNAMIS ARE LONG-PERIOD WATER WAVES CAUSED BY THE VERTICAL UPLIFT OF THE OCEAN FLOOR DURING A M8.0 OR GREATER EARTHQUAKE.

  • HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVESTSUNAMIS INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUPVERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUPINADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS FLOODING

    INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI CAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES

  • FLOODS FLOODS ARE TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH STRONG THUNDERSTORMS OR HURRICANES

  • 70 % OF MEXICOS TABASCO STATE UNDER WATER: NOV 2, 2007

  • LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAINFLOODSINUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURE & CONTENTS: DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)

    EROSION AND MUDFLOWSCONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF RISKDISASTER LABORATORIES

  • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSEXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SUBDUCTION ZONES.

  • ACTIVE VOLCANOES

  • EXPLOSIVE VOLCANOES OCCUR IN SUBDUCTION ZONES

  • ERUPTION OF POPOCATEPL PLACES MEXICO CITY AT RISK

  • LATERAL BLAST VOLCANICERUPTIONS PYROCLASTIC FLOWSFLYING DEBRIS VOLCANIC ASH LAVA FLOWS

    LAHARS TOXIC GASESCAUSES OF RISKCASE HISTORIES

  • LANDSLIDESLARGE VOLUME LANDSLIDES ARE TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH EARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKING AND HURRICANES RAINFALL

  • LANDSLIDE FOLLOWING HEAVY RAINS IN MEXICO: JULY 2007

  • SITING AND BUILDING ON UNSTABLE SLOPESLANDSLIDESSOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO FALLSSOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO TOPPLESSOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO SPREADSSOIL AND ROCK SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS

    PRECIPITATION THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE SHAKINGGROUND SHAKING THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURECAUSES OF DAMAGECASE HISTORIES

  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL NATURAL HAZARDSCAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.

  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL NATURAL HAZARDSCAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.

    More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm**********************************************************

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