lessons learned from past notable disasters. indonesia

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  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. INDONESIA. PART 3: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

    Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA

    More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm*

  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE INDONESIAS COMMUNITIES AT RISK

    EARTHQUAKESCYCLONES FLOODSLANDSLIDES

    VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSGLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCEGOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE

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  • VOLCANOESPART OF THE PACIFIC RING OF FIRE, INDONESIA HAS 127 ACTIVE VOLCANOES AS A RESULT OF COMPLEX SUBDUCTION OF THE INDO-AUSTRALIA AND EURASIATECTONIC PLATES

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  • 542 OF THE 1,500 ACTIVE VOLCANOES ARE LOCATED IN RING OF FIRE

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  • INDONESIA

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  • INDONESIAS VOLCANOES

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  • ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE ON VOLCANOES

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  • VOLCANO HAZARDS CAN HAVE FAR REACHING IMPACTS VERTICAL PLUME (can affect jet aircraft) ASH AND TEPHRALATERAL BLASTPYROCLASTIC CLOUDS, BURSTS, AND FLOWS

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  • VOLCANO HAZARDS CAN HAVE FAR REACHING IMPACTS LAVA FLOWSLAHARS (can bury villages)EARTHQUAKES (related to movement of lava)VOLCANIC WINTER (causing famine and mass extinctions)

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  • LATERAL BLAST VOLCANICERUPTIONS PYROCLASTIC FLOWSFLYING DEBRIS VOLCANIC ASH LAVA FLOWS

    LAHARS TOXIC GASESCAUSES OF RISKCASE HISTORIES

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  • INDONESIASCOMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

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  • INDONESIAS MOST NOTABLE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSLake TobaMount TamboraKrakatauMerapi

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  • INDONESIAS NOTABLE ERUPTIONSLake Toba: Supervolcanic eruption 74,000 years ago that caused 6 years of volcanic winterMount Tambora: One of the most violent eruptions in recorded history that occurred in 1815. Krakatau: Notable for its global effects in 1883

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  • INDONESIAS MOST ACTIVE VOLCANES AT PRESENTMount KelutMount Merapi

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  • Since AD 1000, Kelut has erupted more than 30 times, with the largest eruption having a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 5Thousands have died in these eruptions

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  • Merapi has erupted more than 80 timesThousands have died in these eruptions

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  • SUDDEN CHANGE IN ACTIVITYSince December 26, 2004 when the M9.3 Banda Ache earthquake and tsunami occurred, volcanic activity increased and some of Indonesias dormant volcanoes became active again.

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  • ERUPTIONS OF MOUNT MERAPI May 15, and June 6 - 8, 2006

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  • MOUNT MERAPI RECEIVED CLOSE ATTENTION ON APRIL 18

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  • INDONESIAS MOUNT MERAPI ERUPTED ON MAY 15, 2006Mount Merapi, a stratovolcano, emitted lava, debris, and a pyroclastic flow (or cloud) on May 15.

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  • MAY 15, 2006 ERUPTIONHot ash released.

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  • MAY 15, 2006 ERUPTIONVolcanic ash turned everything white

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  • MAY 15, 2006 ERUPTIONSchool children wore masks to counter adverse health effects of breathing volcanic ash.

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  • MAY 15, 2006 ERUPTIONVolcanic ash covered crops and vegetation.

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  • MAY 15, 2006 ERUPTIONVolcanic ash covered automobiles and affected jet airline traffic.

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  • MOUNT MERAPI ERUPTED AGAIN ON JUNE 6-8, 2006Mount Merapi volcano emitted lava, debris, and pyroclastic flows (superheated clouds of gas) on Tuesday, June 6 and Wednesday, June 7.

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  • EXPLOSIVENESS OF JUNE 8 ERUPTION SENT 15,000 FLEEING

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  • EVACUATION11,000 from three districts evacuated to schools and other safe haven emergency shelters

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  • MANY CHOSE TO EVACUATEMany citizens chose to evacuate.Evacuation was ordered.Villagers remembered the 1994 disaster

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  • MANY CHOOSE NOT TO EVACUATEMany citizens chose not to evacuate because shelters are boring and they wanted to provide for livestock and tend crops.

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  • TOWARDS DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FOR VOLCANOES

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  • THE KEYS TO RESILIENCE: 1) KNOW THE ERUPTIVE HISTORY OF YOUR REGIONS VOLCANOES,2) BE PREPARED3) HAVE A WARNING SYSTEM 4) EVACUATE5) LEARN FROM THE EXPERIENCE AND START OVER

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  • MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES AND WARNING SYSTEMS ARE A VITAL PART OF SURVIVAL.

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  • AIR AND LAND MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES ARE VITAL.

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    More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm**

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