lessons learned from past notable disasters mexico part 1: floods

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS MEXICO PART 1: FLOODS . Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA. MEXICO. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN MEXICO. FLOODS. GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES. SEVERE WINDSTORMS. EARTHQUAKES . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSMEXICOPART 1: FLOODS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA

  • MEXICO

  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN MEXICOFLOODSSEVERE WINDSTORMSEARTHQUAKES VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEHIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENTGOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

  • Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters

    Planet Earths atmospheric-hydrospheric-lithospheric interactions create situations favorable for FLOODS

  • CAUSES OF NOTABLE FLOODS IN MEXICO

    THE ANNUAL RAINEY SEASON RAINFALL FROM THE ANNUAL TROPICAL STORMS AND HURRICANES BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER THEY MAKE LANDFALL ON THE GULF COAST OR THE PACIFIC COAST

  • THE SPECIFIC WEATHER SYSTEM DEFINES THE RISK PARAMETERS

  • HIGH POTENTIAL LOSS EXPOSURES IN A FLOODEntire communities;People, property, infra-structure, business enterprise, government centers, crops, wildlife, and natural resources.

  • FLOODS IN MEXICOS STATES OF TABASCO AND CHIAPAS WORST FLOODING IN 50 YEARS1 MILLION PEOPLE ADVERSELY AFFECTEDONE OF THE WORST NATURAL DISASTERS IN MEXICOS HISTORY

    NOVEMBER 1-2, 2007

  • FLOODS IN MEXICO: NOVEMBER 1-2, 2007

  • ANNUAL FLOODING IN TABASCO Mexicos state of Tabasco has a history of annual floods during November.Many of Tabascos low-lying neighborhoods, such as Villahermosa, the state capital, have become accustomed to living with water in the first floor of their residence for six months of every year.

  • 70 PERCENT OF TABASCO STATE UNDER WATER: NOV 2, 2007

  • 80 PERCENT OF VILLAHERMOSA, TABASCOS CAPITAL, FLOODED

  • 70 PERCENT OF TABASCO STATE UNDER WATER: NOV 2, 2007

  • SOCIETAL IMPACTS IN TABASCO Nearly all services in Villahermosa were shut down. Thousands clung to roofs of houses or waited inside water-soaked houses or designated shelters, waiting to be rescued or to receive emergency assistance. Elevated parking structures were turned into temporary shelters because many houses were unsafe.

  • SOCIETAL IMPACTS IN TABASCOAfter a week of rain in October-November 2007, the Grijalva River rose 2 m (7 feet) above flood stage and overflowed, along with other regional waterways. Approximately 80 percent of Villahermosa and 70 percent of Tabasco were under water.900,000 houses were flooded.Potable water supplies were exhausted.

  • SOCIETAL IMPACTS IN THE STATE OF CHIAPAS Tabascos neighboring state of Chiapas, which is also flood-prone, experienced extensive flooding in November 2007. 100,000 people were adversely affected and faced the same problems as in Tabasco state.

  • A GLOOMY FORECASTMore rain was forecast for the heavily drenched region.With food and drinking water scarce, and some 300,000 of the 1,000,000 still cut off from rescuers, the conditions for serious medical problems such as cholera and other water-borne diseases increased dramatically.

  • FLOODING ASSOCIATED WITH HURRICANE DEANAUGUST 21, 2007

  • IMPACTS IN MEXICO Hurricane Deans storm surge flooded Ciuidad del Carmen, a town of 120,000, with waist deep sea water. Heavy rainfall accompanying Dean caused rivers to rise rapidly throughout the region.

  • CHETUMAL: FLOODING AFTER DEAN ON AUGUST 21, 2007

  • BACALAR: FLOODING AFTER DEAN ON AUGUST 21, 2007

  • IMPACTS REACH SOUTH TEXAS The impacts in Mexico and South Texas were mainly flooding and landslides associated with and exacerbated by the runoff from the heavy rainfall accompanying the storm.

  • THE ALTERNATIVE TO A FLOOD DISASTER ISFLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • MEXICOSCOMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  • A FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT HELPS GUIDE POLICY ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

  • A FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT INTEGRATES PHYSICAL EFFECTS AND SOCIETAL IMPACTS TO DETERMINE RISKRISK

  • LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAINFLOODSINUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURE & CONTENTS: DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)

    EROSION AND MUDFLOWSCONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF RISKDISASTER LABORATORIES

  • FLOOD DISASTER RISKS DAMAGE TO CONTENTS, LOSS OF FUNCTION OF BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE, RELEASE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, TRANSPORTATION OF DEBRIS, AUTOS, AND HOUSES, ENVIRONMENTAL DEAD ZONES, AND WATER BORNE DISEASES

  • A RISK ASSESSMENTA risk assessment involves the probabilistic integration of:The hazard (e.g., floods) and their potential disaster agents (inundation, erosion, etc) that are directly related to the location of the community and what happens in the regional water cycle.

  • RISK ASSESSMENT (Continued)The location of each element of the exposure in relation to the physical demands of the hazard (i.e., inundation, etc.)

  • RISK ASSESSMENT (Continued)The exposure (e.g., people, and elements of the communitys built environment), represents the potential loss when the natural hazard occurs.

  • RISK ASSESSMENT (Continued)The vulnerability (or fragility) of each element comprising the exposure when subjected to the potential disaster agents.

  • UNDERSTANDING VULNERABILITY: THE ULTIMATE DRIVER OF RISK

  • Vulnerability: The Driver of Risk

  • An elements vulnerability (fragility) is the result of a communitys actions or of natures actions that change some part of the regional water cycle (e.g., precipitation, storage, runoff, transpiration, evaporation).

  • WHAT INCREASES VULNERABILITY MANKINDS ACTIONS AND NATURE ITSELF CAN CHANGE THE VULNERABILITY OF ELEMENTS AT RISK TO A FLOOD, A PART OF THE REGIONAL WATER CYCLE

  • MANKINDS CONTRIBUTIONAn elements vulnerability (fragility) is the result of flaws that enter during the planning, location, siting, design, and construction of a communitys buildings and infrastructure.

  • MANKINDS ACTIONS THAT CHANGE SOME PART OF THE WATER CYCLEUrban development or industrial development in areas that were formerly wetlands. Locating buildings and infrastructure in a river floodplain.

  • MANKINDS ACTIONS THAT CHANGE SOME PART OF THE WATER CYCLEActions that increase or decrease river gradients (deforestation, dams, etc).Actions that change the runoff rate or pattern (e.g., the citys concrete footprint)

  • NATURES ACTIONS THAT CHANGE THE WATER CYCLEA flash flood.Ice jams/ice dams on the riverRapid melt of snow and iceExtreme or prolonged precipitation caused by stalled low-pressure weather systems.

  • REQUIRED INFORMATION FOR A COMPREHENSIVE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

  • REQUIRED INFORMATIONPhysical characteristics of the regional water cycle and drainage system. Physical characteristics of each river system, its tributaries, and its floodplains.

  • REQUIRED INFORMATIONPhysical characteristics of catchment basins, reservoirs, and wetlands in the region.Physical characteristics of dikes, levees, and dams controlling water discharge and flooding potential in the region.

  • REQUIRED INFORMATIONThe hazardous materials and other elements located in the floodplain.

  • LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAINFLOODSINUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)

    EROSION AND MUDFLOWSCONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF DISASTERCASE HISTORIES

  • A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external helpwhen three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., floods, earthquakes,) intersect at a point in spaceand time.

  • Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .When it does happen, the functions of the communitys buildings and infrastructure can be LOST for long periods.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrencehigh-probability of adverse consequences event.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrencehigh-probability of adverse consequences event.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.

  • THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.

  • MOVING TOWARDS FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL FLOODS PREPAREDNESFOR THE EXPECTED AND UNEXPECTED IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL FLOODS EARLY WARNING (THE ISS) AND EVACUATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL FLOODS TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL FLOODS RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION USUALLY TAKES LONGER THAN THOUGHT.

    More lectures at Disasters Superco

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