lessons learned from past notable disasters the caribbean part 3: earthquakes and tsunamis
Post on 06-Jan-2016
Embed Size (px)
DESCRIPTIONLESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS THE CARIBBEAN PART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . TECTONIC PLATES. Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSTHE CARIBBEANPART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters
Planet Earths heat flow causes lithospheric interactions, which cause EARTHQUAKES
Natural Phenomena that can Cause Disasters
Planet Earths Restlessness causes subduction of tectonic plates, which can causeTSUNAMIS
THE NORTH AM. AND CARIBBEAN PLATES: CHARACTERIZED BY SUBDUCTION
THE CARIBBEAN BASIN
The Caribbean: long referred to as the West Indies, includes more than 7,000 islands; of these, 13 are independent island countries
ISLANDS POSSESSING MINOR VOLCANIC FEATURES Aruuba, Barbados, Bahamas, Bonaire, Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, and Antigua
ISLANDS POSSESSING RUGGED MOUNTAIN RANGESCuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, ,Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad and Tobago
ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER
ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI RISK RISK
EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI HAZARDS
ARE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS
EARTHQUAKE HAZARDSSURFACE FAULT RUPTURE, GROUND SHAKING, GROUND FAILURE (LIQUEFACTION, LANDSLIDES), AFTERSHOCKS
INTENSITYMEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUECONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKINGEARTHQUAKESSOIL AMPLIFICATIONPERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES
LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSCAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES
TSUNAMI HAZARDSTSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP, WAVE REGRESSION, COASTAL EROSION
A TSUNAMI WAVE CAN REACH 10 M OR MORE IN HEIGHT
Tsunamis Are Associated with Subduction Zone Earthquakes
M 7 or larger earthquakes that occur in oceanic subduction zones can cause:Tsunamis
HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVESTSUNAMIS INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUPVERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUPINADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS FLOODING
INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI CAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES
A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE OR A TSUNAMI INTERACT WITH A CARIBBEAN NATIONS COMMUNITIES
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external helpwhen three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis,) intersect at a point in spaceand time.
Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE . . .When it does happen, the functions of the communitys buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrencehigh-probability of adverse consequences event.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
MAJOR EARTHQUAKESTSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMISA major earthquake (some accompanied by tsunamis) occurs on average every 50 years in the Caribbean.
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMISIn the past 500 years, a dozen major earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 or greater (some with tsunamis) have occurred in the Caribbean near Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and the island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMISBefore the March 12, 2010 destructive earthquake in Haiti, the most recent major earthquake was the M8.1 quake that occurred in 1946 off the northeast coast of the Dominican Republic, triggering a tsunami that killed about 1,800 people.
THE CARIBBEAN: DYNAMIC LABORATORIES FOR LEARNING EACH CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI TEACHES IMPORTANT TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL LESSONS ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE.
THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE: MARCH 12, 2010
NO TSUNAMI: THE M7.0 EARTHQUAKE OCCURRED ON A STRIKE-SLIP FAULT
THE DEADLIEST DISASTER OF 2010: MARCH 12, 2010 M7.0 Haiti Earthquake that killed 230,000, largely because of the inadequacy of the building code, left survivors stuck in tent cities battling a hurricane (Tomas), cholera outbreak, and health-care problems for the rest of the year.
DEATH TOLL REACHED AN ESTIMATED 230,OOO+
PUERTO RICO EARTHQUAKE (AKA SAN FERMIN QUAKE) AND TSUNAMI
PUERTO RICAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMIAt 10 am on October 11, 1918, the island of Puerto Rico was struck by a magnitude 7.5 earthquake, centered in the Mona Passage. approximately 15 kilometers off Puerto Ricos northwestern coast
PUERTO RICAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMIThe earthquake killed 80 and caused widespread destruction rated at $4 million across Puerto Rico.The tsunami produced wave run-up as high as 6-12 m (20-35 feet) along the western coast of the island, killing at least 40.
THE ALTERNATIVE TO AN EARTHQUAKE--TSUNAMI DISASTER ISEARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
CARIBBEAN NATIONS COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL THE LIKELY HAZARDS IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE THREAT IDENTI-FICATION AND/OR EARLY WARNING AND EVACUATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN ARE INEVITABLE---SO, DONT WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING EARTHQUAKETSUNAMI DIS-ASTER RESILIENT.
STRATEGIC COLLABORATION FOR BECOMINMG WINDSTORM DISASTER RESILIENT
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EQTS DISASTER RESILIENCEMEASURMENT TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., GROUND SHAKING; STRAIN) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (E.G., GIS)RISK MODELING (E.G., HAZUS, INSURANCE UNDERWRITING)DATABASES DISASTER SCENARIOSZONATION OF POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS AS A TOOL FOR POLICY DECISIONS
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EQTS DISASTER REWILIENCEAUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMEMTPREFABRICATION AND MODULARIZATIONADVANCED MATERIALS (E.G., COMPOSITES)
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGNPERFORMANCE BASED CODES AND STANDARDSACTIVE AND PASSIVE ENERGY DISSIPATION DEVICES (E.G., BASE ISOLATION)REAL-TIME MONITORING AND WARNING SYSTEMS
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EQTS DISASTER RESILIENCEPROBABILISTIC FORECASTS OF PHYSICAL EFFECTSMEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., SEISMIC NETWORKS, TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM)
DATABASESSEISMIC ENGINEERING MAPS: GROUND SHAKING, GTOUND FAILURE, TSUNAMI WAVE RUNIPDISASTER SCENARIOSWARNING SYSTEMSRISK MODELING (E.G., HAZUS, INSURANCE UNDERWRITING)
TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM FACILITATES GETTING PEOPLE OUT OF HARMS WAY OF TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP THROUGH HORIZONAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION
More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm*********