lessons learned from past notable disasters japan part 1b: tsunamis walter hays, global alliance for...

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  • Slide 1
  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS JAPAN PART 1B: TSUNAMIS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
  • Slide 2
  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE JAPANS COMMUNITIES AT RISK EARTHQUAKES/TSUNAMIS TYPHOONS FLOODS LANDSLIDES VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • Slide 3
  • REGIONAL MAP
  • Slide 4
  • THE TOHOKU QUAKE/TSUNAMI: THE RESULT OF PLATE TECTONICS
  • Slide 5
  • TSUNAMIS EARTHQUAKES THAT GENERATE TSUNAMIS OCCUR FREQUENTLY IN JAPAN AS A RESULT OF COMPLEX SUBDUCTION OF THE PACIFIC, PHILIPPINE AND EURASIAN PLATES
  • Slide 6
  • JAPANS COMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS TSUNAMI HAZARDS PEOPLE AND BLDGS. VULNERABILITY LOCATION TSUNAMI RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK GOAL: TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE PREPAREDNESS PROTECTION EARLY WARNING EMERGENCY RESPONSE RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
  • Slide 7
  • INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING EARTHQUAKES SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP POOR DETAILING AND WEAK CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FRAGILITY OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF DAMAGE DISASTER LABORATORIES
  • Slide 8
  • HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES TSUNAMIS INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS FLOODING INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI CAUSES OF DAMAGE DISASTER LABORATORIES
  • Slide 9
  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL TSUNAMIS. DISASTER- INTELLIGENT COMMUNITIES USE TIMELY EARLY WARNING BASED ON CRITICAL INFORM- ATION TO EVACUATE PEOPLE AND PREPARE.
  • Slide 10
  • THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER HAS A VITAL ROLE IN ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS
  • Slide 11
  • SOME OF JAPANS NOTABLE TSUNAMI EXPERIENCES JUNE 16, 1964 MARCH 11, 2011
  • Slide 12
  • THE NIIGATA EARTHQUAKE: JUNE 16, 1964 The M7.5 Niigata earthquake devastated Niigata, located 50 km south of the epicenter, mainly as a result of massive soil failure and tsunami waves. The port of Niigata was completely destroyed by the tsunami waves..
  • Slide 13
  • PORT OF NIIGATA
  • Slide 14
  • THE TOHOKU DISASTER: JANUARY. 17, 1995 The M9.0 Tohoku earthquake was huge, but its ground shaking did NOT cause the disaster that killed an estimated 21,000 people The tsunami generated by the earthquake did!
  • Slide 15
  • THE TSUNAMI Wave run up reached 40 meters in some locations
  • Slide 16
  • THE TSUNAMIthe beginning The tsunami slammed the east coast of Japan, sweeping away boats, cars, homes and people, before racing across the Pacific ---
  • Slide 17
  • AN OFFSHORE EPICENTER It only took seconds for the P- and S-waves to reach Sendai, and about 15 minutes for the tsunami waves, but what a difference in damage..
  • Slide 18
  • TSUNAMI WAVES:NATON MYIAGI PREFECTURE
  • Slide 19
  • TSUNAMI WAVES: COAST OF NORTHERN JAPAN
  • Slide 20
  • OARAI INUNDATED BY TSUNAMI
  • Slide 21
  • TSUNAMI WAVS: SENDAI AIRPORT
  • Slide 22
  • SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED WITH MUD FROM TSUNAMI
  • Slide 23
  • SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED WITH CARS, MUD, & DEBRIS
  • Slide 24
  • TSUNAMI DAMAGE
  • Slide 25
  • UNEXPECTED IMPACTS The nuclear power plants in the region shut down automatically; an immediate evacuation of tens of thousands in 10- 20 km radii from the plant followed. Radiation levels at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility were 1,000 times normal levels.
  • Slide 26
  • FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR FACILITY HAD 3 FAILURES
  • Slide 27
  • IMMEDIATE SOCIETAL IMPACTS Four and one-half million left without electricity. One and one-half million without water. Metro, trains, and airport shut down.
  • Slide 28
  • URGENT SOCIETAL NEEDS Vertical evacuation to escape the tsunami wave run up, the only way to save lives, was not available to most people.
  • Slide 29
  • URGENT SOCIETAL NEEDS Mass care and health care needs were urgent because of the high radiation levels. Deaths, as expected reached tens of thousands.
  • Slide 30
  • THE TSUNAMI---the end --- The tsunami then raced across the Pacific at 822 -1222 kph (500 to 800 mph) to arrive 5-7 hours later in Alaska and Hawaii and other parts of the West Coast of the USA, and 18 hours later along the coast of South America.
  • Slide 31
  • THE TSUNAMI TRAVELED ACROSS THE PACIFIC
  • Slide 32
  • TSUNAMI WAVE PATH
  • Slide 33
  • HAWAII The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center reported that water rushed ashore in Honolulu, swamping the beach in Waikiki and surging over the break wall in the world-famous resort, BUT stopping short of the area's high-rise hotels.
  • Slide 34
  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL TSUNAMIS CAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  • Slide 35
  • EMERGENCY RESPONSE--- A NIGHTMARE! The fires and explosions in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and radiation levels that were 1,000 times normal levels created a nightmare disaster response scenario for the Government of Japan.
  • Slide 36
  • MARCH 12 EVACUATION AND MASS CARE
  • Slide 37
  • Immediately after the earthquake and tsunami, the Japanese Government began implementing its post- disaster response plans in a highly-charged, possible nightmare nuclear disaster environment.
  • Slide 38
  • URGENT NEED FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE Even though, with so many people (about 20,000) missing over a wide area after the tsunami, search and rescue was a moral imperative and an urgent need,--- IT WAS UNUSUALLY DIFFICULT!
  • Slide 39
  • EVACUATION Approximately 450,000 people were evacuated by military personnel from areas damaged in the quake and in a 33 km radius around the nuclear facilities
  • Slide 40
  • EVACUATION OF CHILDREN
  • Slide 41
  • JAPANS SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAMS The Japanese urban search and rescue teams, which had been helping in the search for Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake victims for two weeks, headed back to Japan to help with the S and R.
  • Slide 42
  • JAPANS SEARCH AND RESCUE Approximately 50,000 members of Japans Self Defense Forces were mobilized immediately and sent to the hardest hit areas.
  • Slide 43
  • JAPANS SEARCH AND RESCUE Tokushu Kyuunan Tai, the search and rescue unit of the Japan Coast Guard, was dispatched to accelerate search and rescue operations.
  • Slide 44
  • SEARCH AND RESCUE
  • Slide 45
  • SEARCH AND RESCUE: RIKUZENTAKADA
  • Slide 46
  • SEARCH AND RESCUE: SOMA; FUKUSHIMA PREFECTURE
  • Slide 47
  • SEARCH AND RESCUE: MIYAGI PREFECTURE
  • Slide 48
  • MARCH 12-17 69 COUNTRIES PROMISED HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE, BUT WERE STYMIED BY THE RISK FROM RADIATION, LACK OF GAS, AND WEATHER
  • Slide 49
  • Search and rescue operations, evacuations, and humanitarian assistance on local and global scales All were limited by the possibility of a nightmare nuclear disaster.
  • Slide 50
  • All actions were conducted with knowledge of the high risk associated with the possibility of a significant radiation release and a nuclear melt down.
  • Slide 51
  • MASS CARE Shortages, closed roads, and lack of fuel made it very difficult to meet survivors needs for food, water, medicine, and electricity.
  • Slide 52
  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL TSUNAMIS CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  • Slide 53
  • THE RESULT: A CATASTROPHE Japans social, technical, administrative, political, legal, health care, and economic systems were tested to their limits by the socio-economic impacts of the earthquake and tsunami, the radiation, and the harsh weather.
  • Slide 54
  • SUMMARY OF THE DISASTER The tsunami wave run up together with the earthquake ground shaking caused major damage to 1.2 million buildings. Simultaneously, wide spread fires burned out of control. Economic losses were estimated at $574 billion.

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