lessons learned from past notable disasters japan part 3: volcanic eruptions

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS JAPAN PART 3: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE JAPAN’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK. EARTHQUAKES. GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE. TYPHOONS. FLOODS. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS JAPAN PART 3: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

    Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA

  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE JAPANS COMMUNITIES AT RISK

    EARTHQUAKES

    TYPHOONS FLOODSLANDSLIDES

    VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

    GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCEGOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • REGIONAL MAP

  • 542 OF THE 1,500 ACTIVE VOLCANOES ARE LOCATED IN RING OF FIRE

  • Japan lies along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a narrow zone around the Pacific Ocean where most of Earth's earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.

  • VOLCANOESVOLCANOES ERUPT EVERY YEAR IN JAPAN AS A RESULT OF COMPLEX INTERACTIONS OF THE PACIFIC, PHILIPPINE, EURASIAN, AND NORTH AMERICAN PLATES

  • JAPANS VOLCANO FACTSOf the 1,500 active volcanoes in the world, Japan has 108 of them.

  • JAPANS VOLCANO FACTSJapan experiences an average of 10 volcanic eruptions per year.

  • LATERAL BLAST VOLCANICERUPTIONS PYROCLASTIC FLOWSFLYING DEBRIS VOLCANIC ASH LAVA FLOWS

    LAHARS TOXIC GASESCAUSES OF RISKCASE HISTORIES

  • JAPANSCOMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  • VOLCANO HAZARDS CAN HAVE FAR REACHING IMPACTS VERTICAL PLUME (can affect jet aircraft) ASH AND TEPHRALATERAL BLASTPYROCLASTIC CLOUDS, BURSTS, AND FLOWS

  • VOLCANO HAZARDS CAN HAVE FAR REACHING IMPACTS LAVA FLOWSLAHARS (can bury villages)EARTHQUAKES (related to movement of lava)VOLCANIC WINTER (causing famine and mass extinctions)

  • JAPANS MOST NOTABLE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSMOUNT UNZEN--MAY 21, 1792

  • MT. UNZENMt. Unzens eruption on May 21, 1792, was one of the worst in Japans long history of volcanic eruptions.Mount Unzen is located near the city of Shimabara in Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu

  • MT UNZEN: 1792

  • REMEMBERING THE MAY 21, 1792S DISASTERAbout 1 month after the lava from Mt Unzens eruption stopped flowing, a massive landslide on the flank of nearby Mount Mayuyama swept through ancient Shimabara City, entered the sea, and generated a tsunami.More than 15,000 people were killed by the landslide and tsunami

  • JAPANS VOLCANO FACTSMt. Unzen and Mt. Sakurajima are considered to be two of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of their potential for a violent eruption that would have devastating impacts on the surrounding high-density population centers..

  • SOME OF JAPANS CURRENTLY ACTIVE VOLCANOESMount Meakan Mount Usu Mount Asama Torishima Sakurajima Suwanosejima Oyama

  • SHINMOEDAKE ERUPTS IN JAPANeruption began at 7:30 AM

    Although called a minor eruption, it was the largest eruption since 1959JANUARY 26-31, 2011

  • SHINMOEDAKE; JANUARY 26-31, 2011

  • JAPAN HAS 104 ACTIVE VOLCANOES The 1,421-m (4,662-ft) Mount Shinmoedake is a part of the Kirishima volcano complex comprised of 20 active volcanoes

  • Mount Shinmoedake is located on the border of the Miyazaki and Kagoshima prefectures

  • In the previous four months, Miyazaki prefecture had also suffered from an epidemic of the H5N1 bird flu, and a foot-and-mouth epidemic that was expected to cause ~ $ 2 billion in economic losses for the local livestock industry.

  • The inflation of the Shinmoedake volcano that eventually culminated in an eruption had been underway since December 2009

  • May 10, 2010 to January 26, 2011: ~6 million m3 (0.006 km3) of magma in a reservoir at 6 km depth ~10 km west-nw from Shinmoedake and another 1 million m3 (0.001 km3) of magma at 3 km depth under the Shinmoedake cone itself.

  • The eruption produced lava fountains, andesitic lava flows, lightning, and ash emissions that reached a height of nearly 5 miles (7.5 km)

  • ERUPTION OF SHINMOEDAKE

  • IMPACTS

  • Approximately 13,000 hectares of farm land were damaged by the falling ash deposits.

  • Flights in the region were canceled and 1,100 people in the vicinity were evacuated to gymnasiums and other facilities in the town of Takaharu, seven miles east of Kirishima.

  • ERUPTION VIEWED FROM TAKAHARU

  • TOWARDS DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FOR VOLCANOES

  • THE KEYS TO RESILIENCE: 1) KNOW THE ERUPTIVE HISTORY OF YOUR REGIONS VOLCANOES,2) BE PREPARED3) HAVE A WARNING SYSTEM 4) EVACUATE5) LEARN FROM THE EXPERIENCE AND START OVER

  • MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES AND WARNING SYSTEMS ARE A VITAL PART OF SURVIVAL.

  • AIR AND LAND MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES ARE VITAL.

    More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm************************************