lessons learned from past notable disasters. part iii c: china’ earthquakes
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DESCRIPTIONLESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. PART III C: CHINA EARTHQUAKES. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINAS COMMUNITIES AT RISK. FLOODS. GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE. TYPHOONS. EARTHQUAKES. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. PART III C: CHINA EARTHQUAKES
Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINAS COMMUNITIES AT RISK
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCEGOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE
CHINASCOMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
TOWARDS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
MAP OF CHINAS PROVINCES
EARTHQUAKESEARTHQUAKES OCCUR FREQUENTLY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF COMPLEX INTERACTIONS OF THE PACIFIC, INDO-AUSTRALIA, AND EURASIAN PLATES
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKINGEARTHQUAKESSOIL AMPLIFICATIONPERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP
POOR DETAILING AND WEAK CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FRAGILITY OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSCAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKESPREPAREDNESS PLANNING FOR THE INEVITABLE GROUND SHAKING IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKESPROTECTION OF BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
NOTES FOR SOME OF CHINAS NOTABLE HISTORIC EARTHQUAKES
DATE, LOCATION, AND DEATHS1290, HOPEH PROVINCE- 100,000 1556, SHENSHI PROVINCE- 830,000 1920, KANSU PROVINCE 180,0001932, KANSU PROVINCE 70,0001975, TANGSHAN, HEBEI PROVINCE 255,000+ 2008, SICHUAN PROVINCE- 88,000
THE TANGSHAN EARTHQUAKEHUBEI PROVINCEJuly 28, 1976
TANGSHAN EARTHQUAKE: 3:42 AM, JULY 28, 1976
TANGSHAN EARTHQUAKE: OCCURRENCEThe M7.8 Tanshan earthquake, the deadliest earthquake of the 20th century, occurred when a fault beneath the city of 1.6 million inhabitants ruptured at 3:42 am. A M7.1 aftershock followed 16 hours later, exacerbating damage and reducing hope for survivors.
TANGSHAN WAS UNPREPAREDIn 1976, experts believed that Tangshan was located in a region with a relatively low probability of occurrence and a low risk from earthquakes; - - -Therefore, Tangshan was NOT prepared.
TANGSHANS BUILDINGS WERE UNPROTECTEDFew, if any, buildings had been sited, designed, and built in accordance with the seismic design provisions of a modern building code, and buildings were sited on unstable alluvial soil, ---Therefore, hundreds of thousands of buildings collapsed,.
TANGSHANS BUILDINGS COLLAPSEDTherefore, 85 percent of the buildings (hundreds of thou-sands of buildings performing all types of functions) collapsed and widespread loss of function of city lifelines occurred.
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL NATURAL HAZARDSCAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
SURVIVORS WERE BURIED UNDER THE RUBBLESurvivors were buried under the rubble of collapsed buildings at 3:42 am, with little hope of a timely rescue and medical care within the 24-48 hour Golden Period by the first responders of a city that was UNPREPARED.
EMERGENCY RESPONSEThe Chinese Government refused to accept international aid from the United Nations, or other countries, insisting on self-reliance.Shanghai sent 56 medical teams to Tangshan to assist.
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCEALL NATURAL HAZARDSCAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
THE TANGSHAN EARTHQUAKES ECONOMIC LOSSThe economic loss was placed at 10 billion yuan.The total loss, which requires placing a value on the loss of 255,000+ lives, is incalculable.
TANGSHAN: RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTIONThe recovery and reconstruction phase was very political and very complex, taking more than 10 years to restore the city to normal.Today, Tangshan, known as the Brave City of China is a modern city of 3 million inhabitants.
THE WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKESICHUAN PROVINCEMay 12, 2008
MONDAY, 12 MAY, 20082:28 PM LOCAL TIMEThe ongoing regional com-pression creating the Tibetan foothills caused the Longmenshan fault to rupture and generate a M8.0 earthquake at a shallow focal depth of only 19 km (11,8 miles).
COLLAPSED BUILDINGS: BEICHUAN
WITHIN A FEW HOURSForty-four of the counties and districts of Sishuan Province and one-half of its 20 million people were directly affected. Over 220,000 were injured.An estimated 88,000 were killed.
TUESDAY, 13 MAY, 2008
The Chinese government announced its willingness to receive international assistance. Search and rescue activities were intensified with the assistance of a number of international teams of search and rescue experts and medical doctors.
SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAM: DUJIANGYAN
WEDNESDAY, 14 MAY, 2008
An 8-months pregnant woman was among those rescued from collapsed buildings in an all out effort to rescue survivors.
PREGNANT WOMAN RESCUED: DUJIANGYAN
WEDNESDAY, 14 MAY, 2008
Soldiers were dispatched to repair Zipingpu dam after cracks were discovered in 391 dams in the epicentral region
FRIDAY, 16 MAY 2008
The Chinese Government increased the number of soldiers involved in emergency response to 130,000Survivors were still being removed from rubble.
SOLDIERS REPAIR CRACKS IN ZIPINGPU DAM:DUJIANGYAN
The earthquake showed that the communities in the Sichian Province were UNPREPARED for what happened!
25 million buildings and the infrastructure to support them were UNPROTECTED by modern building codes or modern lifeline standards.
WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE SICHUAN PROVINCE,CHINA MAY 12, 200888,000 DEAD25 MILLION HOMES DAMAGED OR DESTROYED
Part III B of this lecture
More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm****************************************