lessons learned from past notable disasters italy part 3a: earthquakes
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DESCRIPTIONLESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS ITALY PART 3A: EARTHQUAKES. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN ITALY. FLOODS. GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES. WINDSTORMS. EARTHQUAKES. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSITALYPART 3A: EARTHQUAKES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN ITALY FLOODSWINDSTORMSEARTHQUAKES VOLCANOESENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEHIGH BENEFIT/COST PROGRAMS FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENTGOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
Italy has a long history of destructive earthquakes.
LOCATIONS OF PAST NOTABLE EARTHAUAKES
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters
Planet Earths heat flow and lithospheric interactions cause EARTHQUAKES
ITALY: INTERACTION OF AFRICA---EURASIAN---ANATOLIAN PLATES
ITALY, THE PLATES, AND THE 2009 LAQUILA QUAKE
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external helpwhen three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, cyclones,..) intersect at a point in spaceand time.
Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen
THE REASONS ARE . . .When it does happen, the functions of the communitys buildings and infrastructure that are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards will be LOST.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for concerted local, national, regional, and international actions.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
TOWARDS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISKRISK
ITALYS COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
ITALY: RELATIVE GROUND SHAKING HAZARD (50 YEAR EXP.T. )
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKINGEARTHQUAKESSOIL AMPLIFICATIONPERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES
LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSCAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTH-QUAKES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY GROUND SHAKING IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
WHAT WILL HAPPEN?EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS (AKA THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)
PGA MAP: 10 % EXCEDANCE IN 50 YEAR EXPOSURE TIME
ITALY: EARTHQUAKE ZONES
INTENSITYMEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUECONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
HIGH POTENTIAL LOSS EXPOSURES IN AN EARTHQUAKEA communities people, property, essential and critical infrastructure, business enterprise, and government centers.
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTH-QUAKES BUILDING CODES AND LIFELINE STANDARDS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTH-QUAKES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
SOME OF ITALYS MANY NOTABLE EARTHQUAKESM6.9 IRPINIA: NOVEMBER 23, 1980M6.3 LAQUILA: APRIL 6, 2009
IRPINIAEARTHQUAKE M6.9SUNDAY MORNINGNOVEMBER 23, 1980
EPICENTER: IRPINIA QUAKE
THE IRPINIA EARTHQUAKEKnown in Italy as Terremoto dell'Irpinia, the M6.9 earthquake took place on Sunday, November 23, 1980.The quake, centered near the village of Conza, killed 2,914 people, injured more than 10,000 and left 300,000 homeless.
Building damage was distributed over more than 26,000 km, including Naples and Salerno
DAMAGEOLD, POORLY DESIGNED AND POORLY CONSTRUCTED BUILDINGS SITED ON SOFT SOILS WERE HIGHLY VULNERABLE TO STRONG GROUND SHAKING
PROVINCE OF AVELLINO DEVASTATEDThe towns of Lioni, Conza Di Campania (near the epicenter), and Teora were destroyed.
PROVINCE OF AVELLINO DEVASTATEDEighty percent of SantAngelo Dei Lombardi was destroyed.300 died, including 27 children in an orphanage.
FAR TOO MANY GRAVES
DAMAGE: A GHOST TOWN
DAMAGE TO ROAD
PROVINCE OF AVELLINO DEVASTATEDIn Balvano, 100 were killed when a medieval church collapsed during Sunday services.
COLLAPSED BUILDINGS IN NAPLESDozens of structures in Naples were levelled, including a 10-story apartment building.
THIS DISASTER EXPOSED POLICY FLAWS
UNPROTECTEDUNPREPAREDUN--ABLE TO RESPOND EFFECTIVELY
FACT: VILLAGE HOUSES WITH LITTLE OF NO EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE COLLAPSED, INCREASINGING DEATHS AND INJURIES The 5 pm occurrence (instead of a 10 pm occurrence) likely reduced the number of deaths.
INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE DURING RECONSTRUCTIONThe Italian government spent 59,000 billion lire on reconstruction.Other nations sent contributions: West Germany contributed 32 million USD and the USA 70 million USD.
ITALYS NEXT EARTHQUAKE IS INEVITABLEBUT, EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE IS NOT AN IMPOSSIBLE DREAM!
More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm***********