lessons learned from past notable disasters new zealand part 3a: earthquakes
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DESCRIPTIONLESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS NEW ZEALAND PART 3A: EARTHQUAKES. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters. Planet Earth’s Restlessness Causes Movement of Tectonic Plates: Earthquakes. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSNEW ZEALANDPART 3A: EARTHQUAKES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters
Planet Earths Restlessness Causes Movement of Tectonic Plates:
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN NEW ZEALAND FLOODSWINDSTORMSEARTHQUAKES VOLCANOESENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEHIGH BENEFIT/COST PROGRAMS FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENTGOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
New Zealand is in the southwest Pacific Ocean astride the ring of fire, a distinct belt of volcanic and earthquake activity that surrounds the Pacific Ocean
SUBDUCTION OCCURS BENEATH THE NORTH ISLAND
To the north of New Zealand and beneath the eastern North Island, the thin, dense, Pacific plate moves down beneath the thicker, lighter Indo-Australian plate in a process known as subduction (i.e., reverse faulting).
Within the South Island the plate margin is marked by the Alpine Fault and the plates rub past each other horizontally (i.e., strike-slip)
NEW ZEALANDS SUBDUCTION ZONE AND ALPINE FAULT
About 20,000 earthquakes (most, but not all are small) are recorded in New Zealand every year as a result of its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire
SEISMICITY MAP: VICINITY OF CHRISTCHURCH
ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER
ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK RISK
A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE INTERACT WITH THE VULNERABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENTS OF NEW ZEALANDS COMMUNITIES
ARE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS
PROBABILISTIC GROUND SHAKING MAP (CHRISTCHURCH IN YELLOW)
NEW ZEALANDS CITIES
The largest cities within this high risk zone are the nation's capital, Wellington, followed by Hastings then Napier; all of them have experienced damaging earthquakes.
NOTE: The central part of most cities is comprised mainly of old, vulnerable brick and unreinforced masonry buildings, which are highly susceptible to damage.
INTENSITYMEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUECONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKINGEARTHQUAKESSOIL AMPLIFICATIONPERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES
LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSCAUSES OF DAMAGEDISASTER LABORATORIES
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external helpwhen three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, landslides,..) intersect at a point in spaceand time.
Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE . . .When it does happen, the functions of the communitys buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrencehigh-probability of adverse consequences event.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for concerted local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE . . .The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
THE ALTERNATIVE TO DISASTER:
EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
NEW ZEALANDS COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTHQUAKES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY GROUND SHAKING AND GROUND FAILURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTHQUAKES BUILDING CODES AND LIFELINE STANDARDS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCEALL EARTHQUAKES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
NEW ZEALANDS NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES
M7.1 : SATURDAY, SEPT. 3, 2010
TWO EARTHQUAKES SEVERELY CUT NEW ZEALANDS 2011 ECONOMIC GROWTH A DEEP (33 KM) M7.1 AND A SHALLOW (4 KM) M6.3 QUAKE SIX MONTHS APART COMBINE TO HALF NEW ZEALANDS ECONOMIC GROWTH
M7.1 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES NEAR CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALANDA DEEP (33 KM) QUAKE LOCATED 50 KM FROM CHRISTCHURCH STRUCK AT 4:35 AMSEPTEMBER 3, 2010
EPICENTER: NEAR CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND
In Christchurch, a city of 372,000, power and water services were knocked out, facades fell off buildings, homes businesses, and bridges were damaged by strong shaking, fires were ignited, and the Christchurch Airport was closed.
IMPACTSNumerous injuries, but no deaths, largely due to the 4:35 a.m. time of occurrence, NOT BECAUSE the buildings were resilient to the strong ground shaking
DAMAGE: BFORE (TOP) AND AFTER (BOTTOM)
TYPICAL DAMAGE: UNREINFORCED MASONRY BUILDINGS
DAMAGE TO CARS
LOCAL GROUND FAILURE
AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 3 SEPT 2010 QUAKEChristchurch was hit by hundreds of aftershocks after the M7.1 earthquake of 3 September 2010, which exacerbated damage and added new injuries, but no new deaths.
THE TOLL: EXTENSIVE DAMAGE, BUT NO DEATHSThe earthquake (and its aftershocks) caused extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure, but no deaths.
ESTIMATED AT $1.5 billion.
NEW ZEALANDS NEXT DAMAGING EARTHQUAKE WAS INEVITABLE---BUT, THE NEW ZEALANDERS DIDNT EXPECT IT SO SOON---FEB. 21, 2011, A SECOND REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE.
More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm********