LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. THE PHILIPPINES. PART 3: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. THE PHILIPPINES. PART 3: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE THE PHILIPPINES COMMUNITIES AT RISK. EARTHQUAKES. GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE. TYPHOONS. FLOODS. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. THE PHILIPPINES. PART 3: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

    Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA

  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE THE PHILIPPINES COMMUNITIES AT RISK

    EARTHQUAKES

    TYPHOONS FLOODSLANDSLIDES

    VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

    GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCEGOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • PHILIPPINESCOMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  • THE KEYS TO RESILIENCE: 1) KNOW THE ERUPTIVE HISTORY OF YOUR REGIONS VOLCANOES,2) BE PREPARED3) HAVE A WARNING SYSTEM 4) EVACUATE5) LEARN FROM THE EXPERIENCE AND START OVER

  • LATERAL BLAST VOLCANICERUPTIONS PYROCLASTIC FLOWSFLYING DEBRIS VOLCANIC ASH LAVA FLOWS

    LAHARS TOXIC GASESCAUSES OF RISKCASE HISTORIES

  • THE PHILIPPINE PLATE

  • VOLCANOESVOLCANOES HAVE ERUPTED VIOLENTLY IN THE PHILIPPINES AS A RESULT OF COMPLEX INTERACTIONS OF THE PHILIPPINE AND EURASIAN PLATES

  • GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF 1,500 ACTIVE VOLCANOES

  • http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rp.html

  • LUZON VOLCANIC ARCChain of subduction volcanoes on the west side of the Philippine island of Luzon, including Mount Pinatubored triangles = volcanoes active in the last 10,000 years

  • Major Volcanoes in the Philippineshttp://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Philippines/Maps/map_philippines_volcanoes.html

  • MOUNT PINATUBO FACTSPinatubo is a stratovolcano, a volcano comprised of layers of lava flows and pyroclastic material that gradually accumulated over time.

    http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/philippines/pinatubo.html

  • http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/philippines/pinatubo.htmlANCIENT MOUNT PINATUBO

    Ancestral Pinatubo was an andesite and dacite stratovolcano whose center was in roughly the same location as the modern Pinatubo.

  • MOUNT PINATUBO FACTSBefore April 2, 1991, volcanologists considered Mount Pinatubo to be an inconspicuous, currently inactive volcano that had once been active a millennium ago.

    http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/philippines/pinatubo.html

  • The largest prior eruption in the history of the modern Pinatubo occurred over 35,000 years ago.That eruption distributed over 325 ft (100 m) of pyroclastic flow material on all sides of the volcano, signaling the geologic rebirth of the volcano. http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/philippines/pinatubo.htmlERUPTION HISTORY

  • . http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/philippines/pinatubo.htmlERUPTION HISTORY Radiocarbon ages suggest that eruptions from the modern Pinatubo have been clustered in at least six and possibly as many as a dozen eruption episodes.

  • MOUNT PINATUBO FACTSMany people residing in the area, including those in nearby military bases, barely knew of Mount Pinatubo at allm a factor that hindered evacuation.

    http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/philippines/pinatubo.html

  • VOLCANO HAZARDS CAN HAVE FAR REACHING IMPACTS VERTICAL PLUME (can affect jet aircraft) ASH AND TEPHRALATERAL BLASTPYROCLASTIC CLOUDS, BURSTS, AND FLOWS

  • VOLCANO HAZARDS CAN HAVE FAR REACHING IMPACTS LAVA FLOWSLAHARS (can bury villages)EARTHQUAKES (related to movement of lava)VOLCANIC WINTER (causing famine and mass extinctions)

  • THE PHILIPPINES MOST NOTABLE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONMOUNT PINATUBOJUNE 7, 1991

  • TIME LINE 1On July 16, 1990, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake hit central Luzon. Its epicenter was 100 km NE of Mt. PinatuboOn March 15, 1991, a series of earthquakes took place on the NW side of Mt. Pinatubo

  • TIME LINE 2

    The earthquakes continued to increase in intensity for 2 weeksOn April 2, 1991, small eruptions began. Hundreds of small earthquakes were recorded every day.

  • MT. PINATUBO: April 1991

  • TIME LINE 3SO2 emission increased from 500 tons/day on May 13 to 5,000 tons/day on May 28The first magmatic eruptions occurred on June 3

  • TIME LINE 4The first explosion on June 7 generated a column of ash 7 km highThe Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) issued a warning predicting an eruption within 2 weeks

  • The Eruption ofMount PinatuboJune 15, 1991Luzon, Philippines

  • SNAPSHOTS IN TIME BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER THE HISTORIC ERUPTION

  • MOUNT PINATUBO FACTSPinatubo had an elevation of 5725 ft (1745 m) above sea level before the June 1991 eruption, and an elevation of 5248 ft (1600 m) above sea level after the June 1991 eruption.http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/philippines/pinatubo.html

  • EARLY WARNING AND EVACUATION FACTS

  • Warnings issued by PVO (Pinatubo Volcano Observatory) before the eruption succeeded in saving many lives and protecting property.Warning issued by Civil Defense and local officials saved lives.Warnings issued by PHILVOCS and USGS led to total evacuation of Clark Air force Base (including aircraft).EARLY WARNINGS WERE SUCCESSFUL

  • EVACUATIONPHIVOLCS and USGS developed three evacuation zones

  • EVACUATION ZONES

  • EVACUATIONThe 10 km and 10-20 km zones contained 40,000 peopleThe 20-40 km zone contained 331,000 peopleA volcanic alert system was developed, with daily updates

  • EVACUATION

    Evacuation began:10 km zone on April 710-20 km zone on June 720-40 km zone on June 14

  • The Climactic EruptionLarge tremors began at 13:42 on June 15By 14:30 all seismographs were inoperativeThe most violent phase lasted 3 hours and generated a 34 km high eruption columnThe ash cloud covered 50,000 sq. miles

  • Wednesday, 8:15 AM June 12, 1991 : EVACUATION HAPPENED BEFORE DAY TURNED TO NIGHT

  • A 34-KM-HIGH ERUPTION COLUMN

  • The Climactic EruptionTyphoon Yunga hit Lazon on the same day, obscuring direct viewThe eruption ended 9 hours later at 22:30

  • MT. PINATUBO: JUNE 15, 1991

  • VIEW OF PINATUBO AFTER THE ERUPTIONMount Pinatubo, as seen from Clark Air Base runway

  • AFTER THE ERUPTIONODonnell River

  • AFTER THE ERUPTIONA house by the Sacobia-Bamban River, Bamban, Tarlac, July 23, 1991. A house by the Sacobia-Bamban River, Bamban, Tarlac, July 23, 1991. Nearly 9 m of sediment were deposited during a single lahar event on August 15, 1991

  • AFTER THE ERUPTIONSacobia Bamban River

  • The Climactic EruptionThis was the second largest eruption on Earth in the 20th century; Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6Expelled: 10 billion tons of magma and 20 billion tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2)

  • IMPACTS

  • LOCAL IMPACTSIn the first three months after the enormous eruption, >200 lahars occurredAbout 300 people were killed, mostly by roofs collapsing under wet ash364 communities and 2.1 million people were impacted

    School buried by lahar, Church buried by lahar

  • LOCAL IMPACTS>8,000 homes completely destroyedPyroclastic flows filled river valleys with hot volcanic rocks, which killed vegetation and rendered land infertileThe GDP fell by 3% in 1991Every rainy season, lahars return

    School buried by laharChurch buried by lahar

  • GLOBAL IMPACTSThis was the largest injection of aerosols into the stratosphere ever recorded by modern instruments

    SAGE II observations show that aerosols in the tropics increased by almost a factor of 100 immediately following the eruption, spread to the Earths mid-latitudes three months later, and slowly decreased over several years.

  • GLOBAL IMPACTSAerosols formed a stratospheric cloud which reduced sunlight reaching the Earths surface by up to 5% for 3 yearsNorthern hemisphere average temperatures decreased by 0.5-0.6 C

    SAGE II observations show that aerosols in the tropics increased by almost a factor of 100 immediately following the eruption, spread to the Earths mid-latitudes three months later, and slowly decreased over several years.

  • SUMMARYThe evacuation effort organized by PHIVOLCS and USGS saved tens of thousands of livesThis was a great success for volcanology and the prediction of volcanic eruptionsThe indigeneous Aeta people were hardest hit; many were relocated permanentlyMt. Pinatubo is now a popular eco-tourism destinationMt. Pinatubo, 2013

  • TOWARDS DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FOR VOLCANOES

  • MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES AND WARNING SYSTEMS ARE A VITAL PART OF SURVIVAL.

  • MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES.

    More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm*****************************************************