25 years of notable disasters in mexico 1985 2010 lessons learned for preparedness, mitigation and...

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ALL NATURAL HAZARDS. Capacity for intelligent emergency response, recovery and reconstructionis is essential for community resilience. Presentation courtesy of Dr Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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  • 1. LOCATION

2. LESSONS LEARNED FROMPAST NOTABLE DISASTERS PART I: MEXICO 3. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE MEXICOSCOMMUNITIES AT RISKHURRICANESGOAL: DISASTERRESILIENCEEARTHQUAKESENACT AND IMPLEMENT TSUNAMISPOLICIES HAVING HIGHBENEFIT/COST FORFLOODSCOMMUNITY RESILIENCEVOLCANIC ERUPTIONSLANDSLIDES 4. MEXICO CITY: MEXICOS MEGACITY CAPITOL 5. RISK ASSESSMENT ACCEPTABLE RISKNATURAL HAZARDSBLDG. INVENTORY RISKVULNERABILITYUNACCEPTABLE RISKLOCATION GOAL: DISASTERMEXICOS RESILIENCE DATA BASES AND INFORMATION COMMUNITIESPOLICY OPTIONS PREPAREDNESSHAZARDS: PROTECTIONGROUND SHAKINGGROUND FAILURE EARLY WARNINGSURFACE FAULTINGTECTONIC DEFORMATION EMERGENCY RESPONSETSUNAMI RUN UP RECOVERY andAFTERSHOCKS RECONSTRUCTION 6. TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCERISK ASSESSMENT VULNERABILITY COST EXPOSURENSTURAL EXPECTEDPOLICYHAZARDS EVENTLOSS BENEFITADOPTIONCONSEQUENCESPOLICY ASSESSMENT 7. HURRICANESMEXICO IS AT RISK FROM HURRICANESFORMING IN THE ATLANTIC,CARIBBEAN, AND GULF OF MEXICO ASWELL AS IN THE EASTERN PACIFIC 8. CAUSESOFDAMAGE WIND PENETRATING BUILDING ENVELOPEUPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEMFLYING DEBRISSTORM SURGEHURRICANESIRREGULARITIES INDISASTER ELEVATION AND PLANLABORATORIESSITING PROBLEMS FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES 9. HURRICANE DEANTHE FIRST NORTH ATLANTIC HURRICANE OF 2007 CAUSED DEVASTATION FROMCARIBBEAN ISLANDS TO MEXICO A CATEGORY 2-3 STORM ON 17 AUGUST2007A CATEGORY 4 STORM ON 18 AUGUST 2007A CATEGORY 5 STORM ON 20 AUGUST 10. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUTDISASTER RESILIENCE ALL HURICANES WITHOUTADEQUATEPROTECTION, HIGHVELOCITY WINDWILL LIFT THEROOF OFF OFMANY BUILDINGS. 11. LESSONS LEARNED FORDISASTER RESILIENCE ALL HURRICANES PROTECTIONMEANS THAT YOUUNDERSTAND THERISKS ASSOCIATEDWITH HIGHVELOCITY WINDAND PLAN INADVANCE. 12. COORDINATED PLANNING BY USA,MEXICO, AND CANADA President Bush met with theleaders of Mexico and Canada onMonday, August 20th to continuecoordinated planning of mutualassistance before the arrival ofHurricane Dean. 13. PEMEX OIL AND GASPLATFORM IN GULF OF MEXICO 14. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUTDISASTER RESILIENCE ALL HURRICANES. DISASTER-INTELLIGENTCOMMUNITIES USETIMELY EARLYWARNING BASED ONCRITICAL INFORM-ATION TO IMPROVE THE ODDS FOR SURVIVAL. 15. PATH OF DEAN: 20-21 AUGUST 2007 16. ADVANCE PREPARTIONS INTHE GULF OF MEXICO The Gulf has 4,000 multi-milliondollar oil and gas platforms andfacilities that are at risk fromhurricane Deans strong winds andhigh waves. Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005flooded oil refineries, toppled oilrigs, and cut pipelines. 17. ADVANCE PREPARTIONS OF FACILITIES AT RISK IN THE GULF Pemex, Mexicos oil company, beganevacuating 13,500 workers from its oil rigsin the Gulf of Mexico on Monday, August 20. Petroleos Mexicanos evacuated all 18,000offshore workers and shut down productionrigs on the Bay of Campeche. This action resulted in a loss of revenuefrom daily production of 2.7 million barrelsof oil and 2.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas 18. FOOD AND WATER GONE;CANCUN, MEXICO: AUGUST 19 19. REMEMBERING WILMA, TOURISTSLEAVE CANCUN: AUGUST 19 20. 50,000 TOURISTS LEFT MEXICOBY AUGUST 20 21. CHETUMAL: TAKING SHELTERIN A SCHOOL; AUGUST 20 22. HURRICANE DEAN ATLANDFALL: AUGUST 21 Hurricane Dean made landfall atMajahual, Mexico as a category 5 stormwith winds of 165 mi/hr. Just before landfall, Dean had aminimum central pressure of 906millibars, the third lowest pressureafter the 1935 Labor Day Hurricane inthe Florida Keys and Hurricane Gilbertin 1988. 23. HURRICANE DEANS LANDFALL: AUGUST 21 Hurricane Deans landfall at Majahual,a port popular with cruise liners, wasgood luck for the people of Mexico. This location was a sparsely populatedcoastline that had already beenevacuated, so none of the majorresorts took a direct hit, and after a fewhours, dean became a CAT 2 storm. 24. MAYANS AT RISK: AUGUST 21 Hurricane Dean threatened theYucatans most vulnerable people the Mayans, who have not benefitedfrom tourism or oil production. They are poor, living simple lives, inwooden slat houses susceptible towind damage that are located in low-lying areas prone to flooding. 25. LOCATION OF MEXICOS MAYAN COMMUNITIES 26. IMPACTS IN MAJAHUAL Hundreds of homes collapsed inMexicos second busiest cruise shipdestination. Steel girders collapsed and woodenstructures splintered from the force ofthe wind. About one-half the concrete dockwashed away in the storm surge. 27. MAJAHUAL LANDFALL: 270 KM/HR (165 MI/HR) WINDS; AUGUST 21 28. CHETUMAL: FLOODING ON AUGUST 21 29. BACALAR: FLOODING; AUGUST21 30. HURRICANE DEANS SECONDLANDFALL: TECOLUTLA, MEXICO 31. THE SECOND LANDFALL INMEXICO: AUGUST 22 Hurricane Dean crossed the Bay ofCampeche and made a second landfallas a category 2 storm on Wednesday,August 22. Landfall was at Tecolutla, a fishingtown in the state of Veracruz on theCentral Mexican coast, about 660 km(400 mi) from the border with Texas. 32. PRESIDENT FELIPE CALDERONVISITS CHETUMAL: AUGUST 22 33. STORM SURGE AND HEAVYRAINFALL: AUGUST 22 Hurricane Deans storm surge floodedCiuidad del Carmen, a town of 120,000,with waist deep sea water. Heavy rain fall accompanying Dean,now a category 1 storm, caused riversto rise rapidly in a region thatexperienced flooding and landslides in1999. 34. MAYAN COMMUNITIES SEVERELY IMPACTED Mexicos Mayan communities havesurvived many damaging storms andcenturies of oppression, but survivingHurricane Deans impacts on theirlivelihood was one of their greatestchallenge ever. The greatest impact was NOT thethousands of destroyed Mayan homes,but the loss of food. 35. EARTHQUAKES EARTHQUAKES LIKE THESEPTEMBER 19, 1985 QUAKE OCCUR MAINLY AS A RESULT OFINTERACTIONS OF THE COCOS ANDNORTH AMERICAN PLATES 36. SUBDUCTION: COCOS ANDNORTH AMERICAN PLATES 37. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL NOTABLEEARTHQUAKES PREPAREDNESSPLANNING FORTHE INEVITABLEGROUNDSHAKING ISESSENTIAL FORCOMMUNITYRESILIENCE. 38. CAUSESOFDAMAGEINADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATIONEARTHQUAKESAND PLANDISASTERTSUNAMI WAVE RUNUPLABORATORIESPOOR DETAILING AND WEAKCONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FRAGILITY OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 39. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL NOTABLEEARTHQUAKES PROTECTION OFBUILDINGS ANDINFRASTRUCTUREIS ESSENTIALFOR COMMUNITYRESILIENCE. 40. SCHOOL: MEXICO CITY; M8.1QUAKE, SEPTEMBER 19, 1985 41. MEXICO CITY-- 400 BUILDINGS INOLD LAKE BED ZONE DAMAGED 42. HOTEL REGIS: COLLAPSE 43. TSUNAMIS M8 SUBDUCTION ZONEEARTHQUAKES USUALLY GENERATETSUNAMIS 44. TSUNAMI HAZARD TSUNAMIS ARE LONG- PERIOD WATER WAVES CAUSED BY THE VERTICAL UPLIFT OF THE OCEAN FLOOR DURING A M8.0 OR GREATER EARTHQUAKE. 45. CAUSESOFDAMAGE HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVERUNUP VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVERUNUP INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF TSUNAMIS BUILDINGSDISASTER FLOODINGLABORATORIESINADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATIONPROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI 46. FLOODSFLOODS ARE TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH STRONGTHUNDERSTORMS OR HURRICANES 47. 70 % OF MEXICOS TABASCOSTATE UNDER WATER: NOV 2, 2007 48. CAUSES OF RISKLOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALSSTRUCTURE & CONTENTS:FLOODS DAMAGE FROM WATERDISASTERWATER BORNE DISEASESLABORATORIES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER 49. VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSARE ASSOCIATED WITH SUBDUCTIONZONES. 50. ACTIVE VOLCANOES 51. EXPLOSIVE VOLCANOES OCCUR IN SUBDUCTION ZONES 52. ERUPTION OF POPOCATEPLPLACES MEXICO CITY AT RISK 53. CAUSES OF RISK LATERAL BLAST PYROCLASTIC FLOWS FLYING DEBRISVOLCANIC VOLCANIC ASH ERUPTIONSLAVA FLOWSCASE HISTORIESLAHARS TOXIC GASES 54. LANDSLIDESLARGE VOLUME LANDSLIDES ARE TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITHEARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKINGAND HURRICANES RAINFALL 55. LANDSLIDE FOLLOWING HEAVY RAINS IN MEXICO: JULY 2007 56. CAUSES OF DAMAGE SITING AND BUILDING ONUNSTABLE SLOPESSOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLETO FALLSSOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO TOPPLESSOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE LANDSLIDESTO SPREADSSOIL AND ROCKCASE HISTORIES SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS PRECIPITATION THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURESHAKINGGROUND SHAKING THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE 57. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL NATURAL HAZARDS CAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE. 58. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL NATURAL HAZARDS CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.

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