lessons learned from past notable disasters china: part iii e drought episodes
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DESCRIPTIONLESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS CHINA: PART III E DROUGHT EPISODES. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINA’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK. FLOODS. GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE. TYPHOONS. EARTHQUAKES. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS CHINA: PART III EDROUGHT EPISODES
Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINAS COMMUNITIES AT RISK
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCEGOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE
DROUGHT IN CHINA: 2010-2011
DROUGHT is an environmental extreme that is characterized by an absence of precipitation in the local and regional water cycle as a consequence of interactions of elements of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.
PROLONGED LACK OF PRECIPITATIONDROUGHTS LOSS OF SOIL MOSTURE LOSS OF CROPSDEPLETION/POLLUTION OF GROUND WATER LOSS OF VEGETATION
INSECT INFESTATION LOSS OF USE OF AG. LAND CAUSES & CONSE-QUENCESDISASTER LABORATORIES
THE 2010-2011 DROUGHT EPISODE IN CHINA The 20102011 drought episode, which began in late 2010 after a severe lack of rain and snow, was Chinas worst drought episode in 60 years.
THE 2010-2011 DROUGHT EPISODE IN CHINA Eight of Chinas provinces (Anhui, Gansu, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shandong, and Shanxi), all wheat -producing regions, were impacted by the drought.
MAP OF CHINAS PROVINCES
IMPACTSThe drought caused water shortages for an estimated 2.31 million people and 2.57 million livestock.
IMPACTSWithin the eight provinces, 20% of the farmland and 35% of the wheat crop was impacted.
IMPACTSThe Hubei lake shrank to one-eighth of its normal surface area and one-fifth its usual depth, forcing 3,234 local residents to relocate.
IMPACTSBy June, 2011, the drought had affected 35 million people, including 4.2 million facing a drinking water shortage.
IMPACTSBy June, direct economic losses had reached 15 billion yuan (about 2.3 billion USD).
THE PARADOX: While these 8 provinces were experiencing drought, other provinces were experiencing flooding.
A Slow-Onset, Natural Phenomenon That Can Happen Anywhere
Drought A Natural Phenomenon That Can Cause Disasters Planet Earths atmospheric-oceanic-lithospheric interactions cause: Droughts
CHARACTERISTICS OF DROUGHTSLOW ONSETDIVERSE IN LOCATION AND DURATIONDIFFICULT TO MEASURE THE DURATION AND THE EXTENT OF THE SOCIETAL IMPACTS
DROUGHT HAZARDS (AKA Potential disaster Agents)HIGH TEMPERATURES VERY LOW HUMIDITYLOSS OF SOIL MOISTUREVANISHING STREAMS, LAKES, AND WATER TABLES
DROUGHT LINKAGES AND RISKS Drought is linked to loss of water quantity and quality, which can lead to major loss of life (people and livestock), loss of livelihoods, loss of habitats, and sometimes famine.
NOTE:Between 108 BC and 1911 AD, 1,828 famines of varying severity occurred in China (i.e., one nearly every year in at least one province)
NOTE:Millions in China have died from lack of food.
CHINA;S COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
ELEMENTS OF RISKRISK
DROUGHT RISKS (FOR A SLOW ONSET NATURAL HAZARD)Loss of life (People and animals) Loss of livelihoods and habitatsLoss of crops and agricultural land (e.g., from desertification)Reductions in water quantity and quality
DROUGHT RISKS (FOR A SLOW ONSET NATURAL HAZARD)Large-scale migrations of people from areas experiencing droughts and famines.
FACILITATING ACHIEVEMENT OF DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCEEMERGING TECNOLOGIES
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DROUGHT RESILIENCEWEATHER FORECASTSMONITORING TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., REMOTE SENSING)WARNING SYSTEMS
DATABASES FOR PAST DROUGHTSCOMPUTER MODELS OF DROUGHT MAPS DISASTER SCENARIOSHAZARD ASSESSMENT RISK ASSESSMENT
DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCEPURPOSEIDENTIFICATION OF DROUGHT PRECURSORS
ALERT AND WARNING
TECHNIQUEREMOTE SENSING; SITE-SPECIFIC MONITORING; MODELING PUBLIC AWARENESS; EDUCATION
DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCEPURPOSEPROTECT WATER QUANTITY
PROTECT WATER QUALITY
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING; WATER TREATMENT
DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCEPURPOSELAND-USE CONTROL
ADAPTATION TO THE SITUATION
TECHNIQUEDROUGHT-RESISTANT CROPS AND VEGETATION COMMUNITY DROUGHT RESPONSE PLAN
TOWARDS DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCE
Part III D of this lecture
More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm**********************************