lessons learned from past notable disasters china: part iii e drought episodes

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS CHINA: PART III E DROUGHT EPISODES. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINA’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK. FLOODS. GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE. TYPHOONS. EARTHQUAKES. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS CHINA: PART III EDROUGHT EPISODES

    Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA

  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINAS COMMUNITIES AT RISK

    FLOODS

    TYPHOONS EARTHQUAKESLANDSLIDESS

    DROUGHT EPISODES

    GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCEGOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE

  • DROUGHT IN CHINA: 2010-2011

  • DROUGHT is an environmental extreme that is characterized by an absence of precipitation in the local and regional water cycle as a consequence of interactions of elements of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.

  • PROLONGED LACK OF PRECIPITATIONDROUGHTS LOSS OF SOIL MOSTURE LOSS OF CROPSDEPLETION/POLLUTION OF GROUND WATER LOSS OF VEGETATION

    INSECT INFESTATION LOSS OF USE OF AG. LAND CAUSES & CONSE-QUENCESDISASTER LABORATORIES

  • THE 2010-2011 DROUGHT EPISODE IN CHINA The 20102011 drought episode, which began in late 2010 after a severe lack of rain and snow, was Chinas worst drought episode in 60 years.

  • THE 2010-2011 DROUGHT EPISODE IN CHINA Eight of Chinas provinces (Anhui, Gansu, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shandong, and Shanxi), all wheat -producing regions, were impacted by the drought.

  • MAP OF CHINAS PROVINCES

  • IMPACTSThe drought caused water shortages for an estimated 2.31 million people and 2.57 million livestock.

  • IMPACTSWithin the eight provinces, 20% of the farmland and 35% of the wheat crop was impacted.

  • IMPACTSThe Hubei lake shrank to one-eighth of its normal surface area and one-fifth its usual depth, forcing 3,234 local residents to relocate.

  • IMPACTSBy June, 2011, the drought had affected 35 million people, including 4.2 million facing a drinking water shortage.

  • IMPACTSBy June, direct economic losses had reached 15 billion yuan (about 2.3 billion USD).

  • THE PARADOX: While these 8 provinces were experiencing drought, other provinces were experiencing flooding.

  • UNDERSTANDING DROUGHT

    A Slow-Onset, Natural Phenomenon That Can Happen Anywhere

  • Drought A Natural Phenomenon That Can Cause Disasters Planet Earths atmospheric-oceanic-lithospheric interactions cause: Droughts

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF DROUGHTSLOW ONSETDIVERSE IN LOCATION AND DURATIONDIFFICULT TO MEASURE THE DURATION AND THE EXTENT OF THE SOCIETAL IMPACTS

  • DROUGHT HAZARDS

  • DROUGHT HAZARDS (AKA Potential disaster Agents)HIGH TEMPERATURES VERY LOW HUMIDITYLOSS OF SOIL MOISTUREVANISHING STREAMS, LAKES, AND WATER TABLES

  • DROUGHT LINKAGES AND RISKS Drought is linked to loss of water quantity and quality, which can lead to major loss of life (people and livestock), loss of livelihoods, loss of habitats, and sometimes famine.

  • NOTE:Between 108 BC and 1911 AD, 1,828 famines of varying severity occurred in China (i.e., one nearly every year in at least one province)

  • NOTE:Millions in China have died from lack of food.

  • DROUGHT RISKS

  • CHINA;S COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  • ELEMENTS OF RISKRISK

  • UNACCEPTABLE RISKRISK

  • DROUGHT RISKS (FOR A SLOW ONSET NATURAL HAZARD)Loss of life (People and animals) Loss of livelihoods and habitatsLoss of crops and agricultural land (e.g., from desertification)Reductions in water quantity and quality

  • DROUGHT RISKS (FOR A SLOW ONSET NATURAL HAZARD)Large-scale migrations of people from areas experiencing droughts and famines.

  • FACILITATING ACHIEVEMENT OF DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCEEMERGING TECNOLOGIES

  • EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DROUGHT RESILIENCEWEATHER FORECASTSMONITORING TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., REMOTE SENSING)WARNING SYSTEMS

    DATABASES FOR PAST DROUGHTSCOMPUTER MODELS OF DROUGHT MAPS DISASTER SCENARIOSHAZARD ASSESSMENT RISK ASSESSMENT

  • DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCEPURPOSEIDENTIFICATION OF DROUGHT PRECURSORS

    ALERT AND WARNING

    TECHNIQUEREMOTE SENSING; SITE-SPECIFIC MONITORING; MODELING PUBLIC AWARENESS; EDUCATION

  • DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCEPURPOSEPROTECT WATER QUANTITY

    PROTECT WATER QUALITY

    TECHNIQUERESERVOIRS; CONSERVATION

    ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING; WATER TREATMENT

  • DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCEPURPOSELAND-USE CONTROL

    ADAPTATION TO THE SITUATION

    TECHNIQUEDROUGHT-RESISTANT CROPS AND VEGETATION COMMUNITY DROUGHT RESPONSE PLAN

  • TOWARDS DROUGHT DISASTER RESILIENCE

    Part III D of this lecture

    More lectures at Disasters Supercourse -http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/collections/collection52.htm**********************************

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