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  • LEARNING ABOUT THE REFORM ERA UNIT 8DO NOW 4/10/2017

    Take out a sheet of paper and copy down LTs 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 from the Unit 8: Social Issues and Reform scale.

  • Reform Era: Temperance, Education, Womens Suffrage, Prisons and Care for the Mentally Ill, Abolitionism

  • A Spirit of RevivalSecond Great Awakening: 1790s-early 1800sRevival of religious feeling Differed from the 1st by introducing the idea that everyone could be forgiven for their sinDoing good deeds could help you gain salvationHelped jump start reform movement Americans believed they could act to make things betterTranscendentalism: the belief that the spiritual world is more important than the physicalPeople can find truth within themselves through feelings and intuitionThoreau was a pivotal figureCivil Disobedience: urged people to peacefully refuse laws they considered unjust

  • Organized because consumption of alcohol significantly increased & caused social problemsGoal was to encourage moderation in the consumption of alcohol Some groups pressed for complete abstinence Heavy drinking led to many social problems Movement was led by churches and religious groupsPropaganda focused on the sufferings of innocent mothers and their children

    Temperance Movement

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  • Temperance UnionsGroups that pushed for total prohibitionConsidered drinking to be morally wrong Believed it should be prohibited by lawTheir demands led to experiments with more strict laws The Civil War stalled the movementTemperance was later revisited during the 1890s-1920sWoman's Christian Temperance Union (1874)

  • Annual Consumption of Alcohol 1720-1930QUICK CHECK #1:

    Use the graph to answer the following question.

    How effective was the pre-Civil War Temperance Movement?

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  • QUICK CHECK #1Use the following words to write 3-4 sentences that summarize what you learned: Second Great Awakening, good deeds, Transcendentalism, Thoreau, Temperance, Alcohol, Social Issues

  • Education ReformEarly SchoolsShort-term schools from the colonial era 10-12 weeks per yearProvided basic instructionCharged a fee alongSchooling was costly and religiously based Parents were considered primary educatorsFamilies relied on each other and churches for additional learning

  • Horace Mann and Common SchoolsReformers argued that INFORMED CITIZENS were needed for our republican GOVERNMENT TO THRIVEWorkers wanted their children to have a chance to pursue the American dreamHorace Mann promoted PUBLIC SCHOOLS as the only way to EQUALIZE SOCIETYHe argued that it was impossible that educated people could remain permanently poor

    Mann worked for many reforms in public education:Paid for and run by the publicInclusive of children from different backgroundsTaught by well-trained professional teachers

  • Early Public SchoolsDespite reformers efforts, public school conditions were poor:Lacked funding, books, and equipmentTeachers were poorly paid and often poorly preparedKids that went beyond the elementary grades went to private academiesPublic schools did not become well established until AFTER the Civil War1800s Georgia school house

  • QUICK CHECK #2

    What did Horace Mann believe was the only way to equally educate and inform all citizens of the United States?

    1800s Georgia school house

  • Womens RightsThe Industrial Revolution changed the economyPeople separated from homesHome became a refugeDifferent roles (jobs) for men and womenSTATUS of women remained similar to what it had been during the colonial eraCould not go to college, vote or hold most professional jobsHad no control over their children or propertyNeeded husbands permission to make a will, sign a contract, or file a lawsuitBUT they were able to work out of the home

  • Organizing the MovementMany northern women were involved in the Abolitionist Movement Their involvement in suffrage reform increased after the World Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840Women were excluded from speaking and were forced to listen from behind a curtainLucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton decided it was time to stand up for womens rightsThey planned their own convention when they returned home

    Admission ticket to the Convention

  • The Seneca Falls Womens Rights Convention, 1848

  • The first signatures on the Declaration of Sentiments.

    . . . The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. . . . He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise. He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she has no voice. . .Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Declaration of SentimentsSeneca Falls Convention and DeclarationThe women wrote a document modeled after the Declaration of IndependenceIt went over a list of complaints and ended with a demand for rightsThe movement was ridiculed and women did not gain suffrage until 1920 BUT women did gain more rights when it came to property and wages

  • Legacy of the MovementSeneca Falls helped create an organized campaign for womens rightsReformers made slow progressNew York gave women control over property and wagesMassachusetts and Indiana passed more liberal divorce lawsSome women began their own businessesHowever, womens suffrage took decades19th Amendment passed in 1920Only one woman present at the convention lived to vote

  • QUICK CHECK #3Which of the following is an example of Republicanism?A. the presidents ability to veto a bill passed by CongressB. the passing of the Bill of RightsC. voting for your state representativesD. a government official being impeached for embezzling

    QUICK CHECK #4In your opinion, which reform movement, Education or Womens Rights, was most effective and why?

  • From Prison to PenitentiaryColonial prisons were used as holding placesReformers argued that society would benefit more from rehabilitating prisoners than punishing themWould also help our economy because prisons could double as workshops for profitBy 1850, most states had adopted the penitentiary systemPenitentiary: prisons used for housing prisoners as punishment and rehabilitation

  • Prisons and the Mentally IllBefore the 1800s, the mentally ill were kept at home or imprisonedBy 1815, asylums appeared that separated the mentally ill from prisonersDorothea Dix led the reform movement for the mentally illBoston school teacher who was asked to teach Sunday school at the East Cambridge House of Correction in 1841Found a room full of mentally ill women neglected and left without heat during the New England winterTranquilizing Chair

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  • Dorothea Dix and ReformAfter her experience, Dix spent two years investigating jails and asylumsKeepers of the institutions called her charges slanderous lies but she won support20 states adopted laws to improve conditions32 new hospitals were built due to her effortsthe present state of insane persons confined within the Commonwealth, in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained naked beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience!

  • QUICK CHECK #5What led to Dorothea Dix discovering the conditions inside prisons?

    She was a prison guardShe was a teacher who taught prisoners how to readShe was teaching Sunday school in a prisonShe heard about it from a friend

  • OR?

  • Abolitionist MovementReformers began asking how can America, the land of the free, still allow slavery The Atlantic Slave trade was outlawed in 1808 BUT the Industrial Revolution and the invention of the cotton gin made both the North and the South dependent on slavery

    Abolitionists were people who wanted to end slavery regardless of this economic dependenceBoth whites and African Americans were abolitionists

  • Famous AbolitionistsAlthough the North profited from plantation systems and slavery, some white Northerners joined the Abolitionist MovementWilliam Lloyd Garrison: began to publish an abolitionist newspaper, The LiberatorEven more rare were Southern abolitionistsGrimke Sisters (Sarah and Angelina): Grew up on a plantation but believed slavery was immoralMoved north and joined the movement Spoke out against slavery publically

  • Famous AbolitionistsSome brave abolitionists helped slaves escape to freedomHarriet Tubman- one of the most famous conductors on the Underground Railroadan above ground series of escape routes from the South to the NorthMade 19 dangerous journeys to free enslaved peopleSlave owners offered $40,000 for her capture, but she was never captured, nor did she lose a passenger

  • Famous AbolitionistsSome escaped slaves also joined the movementFrederick Douglass: became a lecturer for the Mass. Anti-Slavery SocietyPeople who heard him considered him to be too educated and well-spoken to have ever been a slaveWe wrote an autobiography that was an instant best-sellerStarted his own newspaper North StarSojourner Truth: fled her owners and lived with Quakers who set her freeDrew huge crowds throughout the North as she spoke for abolitionBoth were able to change the way Northerners viewed slaveryBUT slavery continued for another 30 years

  • QUICK CHECK #6Why did the practice of slavery continue despite significant opposition and even after the Atlantic slave trade was outlawed?

    Because many people preferred not to talk or worry about slavery.Because during the Industrial Revolution, both Northern and Southern economies became even more dependent on slavery than before.Because the number of Southern slave-owners outnumbered the amount of abolitionists in the North. Because slaves werent allowed to vote against slavery.