2,reform movements(history)--abhishek sharma

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  • 1. Reform movementsImpact of British rule in India led to social &religious reform movementsHad scientific outlook & rationality in comparison toIndian static , decadent, superstitious societyIndian society suffered from many ills like positionof women, caste system, hierarchical societal systemilliteracy , poverty etc.What made handful of the foreigner to rule IndiaWestern educated middle class intellectual startedmany reforms on the basis of reason, logic
  • 2. Woman emancipationAbolition of Sati through regulation of 1829 Raja Rammohan RoyWidow RemarriageIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar principle Sanskritcollege Calcutta Hindu widow remarriage act 1856Vishnu Shastri Pandit founded widow remarriageassociation1850D.K Karve in western India ,opened widows homein poona, set up women university in Bombay in1916, himself married widow Veerasalingam Pantulu in madras made effort inthis directionOthers were Malabari, Ranade
  • 3. Child marriageNative marriage act 1872 prohibited childmarriageParsi reformer Malabari made effort forAge of Consent Act 1891 min. age of girl 12Sarda act 1930 marriageable age boy18, girl 14Child marriage (restraint ) act 1978 boys21,girls 18
  • 4. Woman education1819 Calcutta female juvenile society setup by Christian society1849 Bethume school Calcutta byBethume 1st fruit of the movement forwoman education 1854 Woods Dispatch on education laidemphasis on woman education1916 Woman university Bombay . Karve1916 Lady Hardinge Medical college Delhi
  • 5. Lord Hardinge II (1910-1916)1911 Creation of Bengal presidency likeBombay & Madras1911 ..Transfer of capital from Calcutta toDelhi1911 Coronation durbar of King George Vin Delhi1915 .Hindu Mahasabha by MadanMohan Malviya
  • 6. Role of Women laterParticipated in Indian freedom movementSwadeshi & boycott at the time of Bengalpartition 1905 played great roleHome rule movement of Annie Besant &TilakSarojini Naidu became president of Indiannational congress in 1925 later governor ofUnited Province (1947-49)
  • 7. Caste based exploitationBrahmo samaj, prathna samaj , Aryasamaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Theosophist workedagainst it . Though defended chaturvarnasystemPrinciple of liberty & equality basis for freedommovt. to unify the societyINC govt. in 1937 did useful work for upliftmentof depressedGandhiji in 1932 founded All India Harijan Sangh
  • 8. Caste based exploitationJyotiba Phule movement against Brahminicaldomination of Hindu societyBabasaheb Ambedakar organized All IndiaScheduled Caste Federation1900s Maharaja of Kolhapur encouragedNon- brahminical movement1920s south India Self Respect Movementby E.V. RamaswamySri Narayan guru in Kerala against upper classdomination One religion, one caste , oneGod for mankind
  • 9. Raja Rammohan RoyFather of Indian RenaissanceSet up Brahmo Samaj 1828 earliest reform movementWrote Gift to Monothesis , preached monotheismTranslated to Bengali the Vedas & five Upanishads1814.. Set up Atmiya Sabha in CalcuttaFocused on rationality & reasons in Vedanta1820 wrote Precepts of JesusSati was declared crime through Govt regulationsSupported David Hare to set up Hindu college 18171825 set up Vedanta collegeOpposed Higher taxes , export duty on Indian export, East IndiaCompanys trading rightsSupported Indianisation of Superior services, separation ofexecutives from judiciaryRadhakant Deb organized Dharma sabha opposed Roy
  • 10. Brahmo SamajFollowers of Brahmo samaj were KeshabChandra sen ,Debendra nath tagore, IshwarChandra Vidyasagar, Ashwani Kumardatta, DeroziansIt denounced polytheism& idol worshippingCriticized caste system
  • 11. Prarthana SamajKeshab Chandra Sen founded it in 1863 inBombayOther leaders included Mahadeo GobindRanade, R.G. Bhandarkar
  • 12. Henry Vivian DerozianLed Young Bengal MovementTeacher in Hindu college Calcutta 1826-31Inspired by French revolutionHad radical thoughts of liberty & freedom
  • 13. Jyotiba PhuleWas against upper class BrahminicaldominationIn 1873 founded Satya Shodhak samajWrote Gulamgiri & Sarvajanic Satyadharma
  • 14. OthersGopalhari Deshmukh Lokhitwadi advocatedreorganization of the Indian society onrational principles. If religion does notsanction social reform , then change thereligionGopal Krishan Gokhale set up Servant ofIndia Society in 1905 with aim of trainingmissionaries for national serviceNarayan Malhar Joshi founded Social serviceleague in Bombay
  • 15. 1885 Seva Sadan was started by BehramjiMalabari to take care of discarded & exploitedwomen1830 Dharma Sabha started by Radhakant Debopposing abolition of Sati & maintaining statusquo in the socio religious mattersBharat Dharma Mahamandal stood againstArya Samaj, Theosophical Society, RamkrishnaMission , Head quarter at Varanasi MadanMohan Malviya was leader of it
  • 16. Ramkrishna movementRamkrishan Parmahansa priest at Kali templeDakshineshwar CalcuttaSpread the message of VedantaNarendranath Datta (Swami Vivekananda) disciple ofParmahansa founded Ramkrishna Mission in 1897 atBelur near Calcutta for religious & social reformsService of man is service of GodFollowed teachings in Upanishads & GitaHe represented India in world parliament of religionin 1893 held at Chicago , preached healthy balance ofmaterialism of west with spiritualism of east.
  • 17. Dayanand SaraswatiFounded Arya Samaj as a reaction to western influence in 1875 atBombay, later headquarter at LahoreMulshankar (Dayanand saraswati) born in old Morvi state of Gujrat inBrahmin familyWrote Satyarth PrakashPreached supremacy of Vedas go back to Vedas.Was disciple of blind teacher Swami Virjananda of Mathura whotaught him VedantaCriticized later hindu scriptures as PuranasPreached Vedic notion of chaturvarna as per occupation & not by birthSamaj fixed min marriageable age at 25 for boys & 16 for girls1st DAV school at Lahore in 1886 emphasized the importance ofwestern educationSwami Shradhanand started Gurukul at Hardwar in 1902 to providetraditional educationStarted Shuddhi movement to reconvert the hindu from other religionsit led to the communal politics later
  • 18. Aligarh MovementAfter 1857 British played divide & rule policy1885 INC formed Indian Muslim were led by some leaders topreach loyalty towards British to take care of their interestsSyed Ahmad Khan wanted Indian Muslims to develop & geteducated in western educationLoyalty to British earned him knighthood in 1888 , he wanted toreconcile western scientific education with the teachings of Quaran,but believed in adaptability of religion on basis of rationalityStarted Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875, toimpart modern education among Muslims, & prevent them fromparticipating in politicsDeoband School preached orthodox tenets of religions & jihadagainst foreign rulers, set up in Saharanpur district of UP in 1866 byMohd. Qasim Nanotavi & Rashid Ahmed Gangohi, it supported INC& issued fatwa against Sayed Ahmad Khans organization
  • 19. Sikh MovementSingh Sabha movement started in Amritsar in1873 to impart western education to Sikhs &to protect Sikh religion from conversionsAkali movt. Was its offshoot & founded toprotect the gurudwaras from corrupt mahantsenjoying government patronageSikh Gurudwara act 1922 gave control ofGurudwaras to masses to be


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