reform movements of the 1800s
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DESCRIPTIONREFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800S. What were the major reform movements of the 1800s?. Treatment of the mentally ill Temperance movement Abolition of slavery Women’s rights Education. TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL. Leader: Dorothea Dix. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800S
WHAT WERE THE MAJOR REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800S?Treatment of the mentally illTemperance movementAbolition of slaveryWomens rightsEducation
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILLLeader: Dorothea Dix
GOAL: better treatment of persons with mental illnessesREASON: the mentally ill were badly treated
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILLIn 1800s, America was seen as a land of unlimited opportunity. Many believed that those who failed did so because they had bad characterAs a result, debtors, children who were offenders, and the mentally ill were often locked up in jailsDorothea Dix and other reformers worked to change Americans ways of thinking about these institutions and their inmates
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILLDorothea Dix first observed prison conditions while teaching Sunday school at a Boston prison for women in 1841.She wanted to find out if all the prisons in the state were as appalling.Over a two-year period, Dix investigated more than 800 prisons, jails, and poorhouses.
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILLShe found the prisoners were often living in inhumane conditions.Prisoners were often chained to the walls with little or no clothing, often in unheated cells.
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILLTo Dorothea Dixs horror, she learned that some of the inmates were guilty of no crimethey were mentally ill persons. Dix made it her lifes work to educate the public as to the poor conditions for both the mentally ill and prisoners.Dorothea Dix Hospital, Raleigh, NC
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILLDix decided to appeal to the Massachusetts government for help. In 1843 she addressed the following report to the state legislature:I proceed, gentlemen, to call your attention to the present state of Insane Persons confined, in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience
TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILLAs a result of Dixs report, Massachusetts passed a law to build mental hospitals where mental illness could be treated as a disease rather than a crime.By 1852, she had persuaded 11 states to open hospitals for persons with mental illness.
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENTLeader: American Temperance Union and religious leaders
GOAL: to eliminate alcohol abuseREASON: alcohol led to crime, poverty, abuse of family
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENTReligious leaders stood at the forefront of the war against alcohol.Public drunkenness was common in the early 1800s.Alcohol abuse was widespread, especially in the West and among urban workers.
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENTReformers blamed alcohol for:povertybreakup of familiesWife and child abuse crimeInsanity
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENTAlcohol abuse was widespread during this time.Employers often paid part of workers wages in rum or whiskey. Workers took rum breaks similar to todays coffee breaks
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENTThe American Temperance Society was formed in 1826.Within a few years, about 1000 local organizations sprang up across the nation.Some groups took a moderate approach and asked people to drink less alcohol.Other groups insisted that the sale of alcohol be banned altogether
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENTNorthern and Southern temperance societies used propaganda to win support for their cause.They held meetings, gave speeches, and distributed pamphlets.They even sang songs such as Drink Nothing, Boys, but Water, and Father, Bring Home Your Money Tonight.
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENTState legislators took the reformers message to heart. By 1857 several states had passed prohibition laws. Many Americans protested the laws, and most of the laws were later repealed.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYLeaders: Quakers, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, William Lloyd Garrison, anti-slavery groups
GOAL: end slaveryREASON: it is immoral for one person to own another
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYBy 1804 every Northern state legislature had passed laws to eliminate it.In1840, nearly 2.5 million enslaved people lived in the South.The Southern economy, though, depended on slave labor.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYA religious group, the Quakers, started the abolition movement after the Revolutionary War Quakers had opposed slavery since colonial times. In 1775 the Quakers organized the first antislavery society.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYThe American Colonization Society, founded in 1817, wanted to help free African Americans.The society set up a colony for free African Americans in Liberia, in western Africa.It was not successful because many African Americans wished to remain in the United States, their home.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYIn 1831 white abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison founded The Liberator, a Boston anti-slavery newspaper. In the first issue, Garrison demanded the immediate emancipation, or freeing, of all enslaved persons.He urged abolitionists to take action without delay.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYThe North had many prominent African American abolitionists.Sojourner Truth was born into slavery in New York and gained her freedom when New York abolished slavery. Now free, she vowed to tell the world about the cruelty of slavery.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYThe most important spokesperson for the cause was Frederick Douglass.Born into slavery, Douglass taught himself to read, although Southern laws prohibited it.He escaped from slavery in 1838 and settled in Massachusetts.He captivated audiences by talking about his life in bondage and spoke against the injustices faced by free African Americans.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYIn addition to his public speaking, Douglass edited a widely read abolitionist journal called the North Star. Douglasss speaking and writing abilities so impressed audiences that opponents refused to believe he had been a slaveIn response, he wrote three autobiographies.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYMany abolitionists became conductors on the Underground Railroad.The Underground Railroad began around 1817. It was a series of houses where people hid runaway slaves and helped them reach the next station.Enslaved African Americans made their way to the North or Canada on the railroad.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERYBorn a slave, Harriet Tubman escaped then went back to help others escape. She returned to the South 19 times and led more than 300 enslaved peopleincluding her own parentsto freedom. Slaveholders offered a reward of $40,000 for her, dead or alive.
WOMENS RIGHTSLeaders: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner TruthGOAL: obtain equal rights for women, including suffrage, right to own property, and educationREASON: women did not have the same rights as men
WOMENS RIGHTSTheir involvement in the antislavery movement and other reform movements gave women roles outside their homes and families.They learned valuable skills, such as organizing, working together, and speaking public. (it was considered unfeminine to speak in public)
WOMENS RIGHTSAfter attending the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 and not being allowed to participate in the discussions, Lucretia Coffin Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton spent hours talking about womens position in society.They realized that they could not bring about social change if they themselves lacked social and political rights.
WOMENS RIGHTSIn July1848, the first womens rights convention opened in Seneca Falls, New York. Both males and females attended the convention.The delegates issued the Seneca Falls Declaration that all men and women are created equal.Then the declaration listed several resolutions, including suffrage
WOMENS RIGHTSA dedicated reformer, Susan B. Anthony joined the womans rights movement, the temperance movement, and worked for the American Anti-Slavery Society.She became one of the first to urge full participation of African Americans in the womens suffrage movement.Through her efforts, New York agreed to grant married women the guardianship of their children and control of their own wages.
EDUCATION REFORMLeaders: Horace MannGOALS: to educate all AmericansREASON: more Americans were qualified to vote and needed to be able to make wise decisions about their governmentEducation does better than to disarm the poor of their hostility toward the rich; it prevents them from being poor.
EDUCATION REFORMAmerican schools varied across the country.They were usually paid for by the townThe rich managed to give their children better educations by paying for private schools.
EDUCATION REFORMDuring the 1830s more Americans qualified to vote than ever before.Educational reformers argued that voters needed good educations to make sound decisions about their government.The reformers proposed raising the standards of schools across the nation and supporting them with taxes. To accomplish these goals, they started the common school movement.
EDUCATION REFORMNot everyone favored common schools, also referred to as free, or tax-supported, public schools.In the 1830s, few people paid state or federal taxes. As a result, many strongly objected to paying taxes for public schools.
EDUCATION REFORMHorace Mann spearheaded the campaign for common schools.Mann was especially concerned about poor children who could not afford private schools or to contribute to the support of schools in their district.Mann won over taxpayers to his way of thinking by pointing out the benefits to society.
EDUCATION REFORMDuring the 1840s and 1850s, the flood of immigrants into the United States helped free public schools gain general acceptance. Many Americans realized that schools were the ide