hogan's history- early american reform movements
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- 1. Reform Movements of the Early 1800s
- 2. Social Reform Movements While America was undergoing an "era of good feeling" there were many problems lying under the surface. Reforms in the 1800s covered a wide variety of areas, including religion, education, mental illness, special needs, and use of alcohol. People began to involve themselves in these movements and began to take notice of his/her responsibility to make better these social ills which attacked society This reform movement was led by people who believed that America could do anything if she put her mind to it. Few areas escaped the notice of reformers in the 1830's and 1840's
- 3. Horace Mann An influential American educator who advocated education reform. He wanted both men and women to have access to public education and believed that education was essential to the success of democracy. He helped to create the state Board of Education in Massachusetts. It was eventually successful and the New England region had the highest literacy rate. Horace Mann: Lengthened the school year to six months. Made improvements in the school curriculum. Doubled teachers salaries. Developed better ways of training teachers. Standardize textbooks Compel attendance
- 4. Education Reform Led by Horace Mann, the great educational reformer, sought to improve and better regulate public education. The idea that uneducated citizens could ruin society scared many government officials into funding public schools and led to the creation of mandatory public education in America. Children had to attend single-room schools which were very inefficient. Very cold in the winter and very hot during the summer. School Lunch Pail Ink Well In a lot of schools, teachers stood in the doorway or school yard and rang the hand bell to call their students to class. Desk Text Book
- 5. Education Reform (cont.) Teachers were initially untrained (No college education required) and underpaid. Taught only the three Rs: Readin, Ritin, and Rithmetic. Children of color were forbidden to learn to read and write in the South and rarely in the North. Some scholars at the time frowned upon girls education because they believed it injured the weak female brain, undermined their health, and rendered young women unfit for marriage. Hornbooks were used by children in colonial times to help them learn to read. They were thin pieces of wood with a handle. There was a single page protected by a transparent sheet of horn. At the left you can see what we used with the children. The alphabet was one of the things printed on the paper. Punishments Boys and Girls Playing Together: 4 lashes For Wrestling at School: 4 lashes Fighting or Quarreling at School: 5 lashes Gambling or Betting at School: 4 lashes Playing at Cards at School: 10 lashes Swarin at School: 8 lashes For Misbehaving to Girls: 10 lashes Going to School with Dirty Faces and Hands: 2 lashes Spelling Book
- 6. Temperance Movement Many believed that excessive use of alcohol caused social problems such as crime and poverty. Alcoholism was widespread during the early 1800s. Reformers stepped up their campaign for temperance, or moderation in the consumption of alcohol. Temperance groups formed all across the country. Several groups joined together to form the American Temperance Union. Temperance groups also worked for laws to prohibit the sale of liquor. In the 1830s and 1840s national and state societies generated an enormous output of antiliquor tracts, and hundreds of local temperance societies were founded to press the cause, first of moderation in drink but increasingly of total abstinence from liquor. The temperance campaign proved extremely successful, particularly in New England and New York. By the 1840s, liquor consumption had fallen and hundreds of thousands of men had signed pledges of total abstinence through religious or marital pressure. Some ministers denounced the evil of drinking and promoted the expulsion of drinkers from church.
- 7. Carrie Nation (1846-1901) A prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known for attacking saloons herself with a hatchet. In 1881, Kansas became the first state to outlaw booze. Teetotaler, Carry Nation takes to entering saloons with a hatchet to destroy bottles of liquor. She occasionally greeted bartenders with a cheery, Good morning, destroyer of mens souls, before proceeding to destroy the bar with her hatchet.
- 8. Abolitionist Movement The effort to do away with slavery became a major reform issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840.
- 9. Womens Rights Movement In the 1800s, many people believed that the home was the proper place for women. The idea that women should be homemakers and be responsible for the development of their children came to be known as true womanhood. Women could not vote and if married, they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment, not receiving the opportunities that men possessed.
- 10. Women's Suffrage Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote and to hold an elected office.
- 11. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Major figure of the early women's rights movement. She helped organize the first women's rights convention known as the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848. Stanton's boldness shocked many when she used the occasion to call for women's suffrage.
- 12. Susan B. Anthony A supporter of both the temperance and abolitionist movements, Susan B. Anthony is best known for joining with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to fight for women's rights. She continued to be a leader in the women's suffrage movement until her death in 1906. In 1979 Congress approved the Susan B. Anthony dollar coin to be minted in her honor.
- 13. Seneca Falls Conference (1848) In 1848, the Seneca Falls Convention was a gathering of women and the start of an organized womens movement. The convention adopted resolutions for womens rights. Among those adopted were a demand for womens suffrage and a diminution of sexual discrimination in education and employment.
- 14. Penitentiary Reforms Some reformers worked to improve prison conditions. In the 1800s, criminals of all kinds and the mentally ill were often crowded together in prisons. States began building new facilities to provide better conditions for prisoners. Some people also worked for programs to help prisoners rehabilitate themselves rather than simply locking them up. The new prisons, called penitentiaries, were meant to be places where prisoners would learn remorse.
- 15. Dorothea Dix Many people in the mid-1800s worked to reform various aspects of American society. Dorothea Dix worked to improve conditions for the mentally ill, who were often locked up in prisons. Dorothea Dix Patient in restraint chair Mental patients were often imprisoned, chained or held in painful restraints, flogged and tortured in a variety of ways, denied ordinary comforts like heat, light, company, and food and drink, and sometimes exhibited to public ridicule. The Utica Crib was widely used to confine patients. Some cribs were made out of wood, some iron. The sides and lid were made of spindles, which allowed airflow. The Utica Crib had a lid, which could be fastened over the patient. The person restrained could not sit up, nor get out. The bottom was cushioned with layers of straw. Mask for the criminally insane often called torture masks. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bn9YEfYmP-s
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