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  • Antebellum Reform Movements and Culture

  • Reform MovementsTransportation and Communication revolutions accompanied by reform movements.Most reform movements

  • Colonial Religion of 23 million attend church in 1850The Age of Reason (1794) Thomas PaineChurches are set up to enslave mankind, and establish powerBuilt on DeismReason, not revelation, science not bible

  • Unitarianism Deism helps inspire Unitarianism in NEGod exists in one person, not the wholly trinity Human nature is good not vileFree willSalvation is possible through good works Embraced most by intellectualsHow does this compare to Calvinism?

  • 2nd Great Awakening Starts on Southern frontier, spreads to northern cities Most momentous episode in American Religion Will be a huge cause in the reform movements

  • 2nd Great AwakeningCamp Meetings thousands gather in the woods to listen to entertaining preachers2nd GA helps Methodist and Baptists the most Both stress personal conversion, democratic control of church affairs, rousing emotionalism

  • 2nd Great AwakeningCircuit Riders- traveling frontier preachersPeter Cartwright Methodists Charles Grandison FinnyAnxious bench- sinners could sit in full view of congregationWomen should pray out loud in public Against alcohol and slavery

  • 2nd Great Awakening Feminization of religion in church membership and theocracy Middle class women make up most new membersTrans. Comm. Revolutions = economy boom, 2nd GA allows women to bring God back to the family

  • Burned Over District Western NYToo much hellfire and damnation preachingSpawns the Millerites or Adventists Christ will return to earth in 1844didnt happen

  • 2nd Great AwakeningWiden lines between classes and religionsEpiscopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Unitarians= wealthy and educated, N and E Methodists, Baptists, less educated, less prosperous- S, W Slavery encourages more splits

  • Mormons Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsFounder = Joseph SmithOpposition in OH, Missouri, IllWhyCooperative sectsVote as oneTrain militias for defense purposes Polygamy

  • Mormons 1844- Smith is MurderedBrigham Young takes over- strict leaderMoves them to Utah Utah becomes powerful theocracy and commonwealth

  • Free Schools Conservative Americans- worried that brats may grow up ignorant, and have right to voteWealthy- taxation for education to provide a stable democracy Increased suffrage in west- huge supporters Education prior to the movement- One room school houses, all male teachers, Book of larnin taught 3 rs, readin, ritin, ritmetic

  • Education Reformists Horace Mann- better school houses, longer school terms, expanded curriculum, better pay for teachersSchools still not that prevalent in US on even of civil warBlacks, not allowed in either north or South New TextBooksNoah Webster- Schoolmaster of the RepublicReading Lessons- promote patriotismWebster's Dictionary 1828William McGuffey- McGuffeys Readers

  • Higher EducationUsually made to establish local pride rather than promote educationWomen generally are not allowed, supposed to be in the homeException Oberlin College OH (1837)Most adults attend lyceums- public lectures (RWE)

  • Reform Movements2nd GA= inspired people to battle earthly evilsWomen (middle class) huge influence- chance to get out of house and enter public field Also formed in response to market economy

  • Prison Reform Debt imprisonment is highCapitol punishment starting to decline (Europe)Idea- prisons should also reform guilty (house of corrections) Mentality ill chained liked beast among normal prisoners Dorthea Dix- reports prison conditions to Mass. Legislature- prisons get better, insanity is now starting to be considered an illness

  • Demon Rum- The Old DeluderCons of alcoholDrunks at important religious eventsNew industrial equipment is dangerous (sober or drunk)Undermine family unity

  • American Temperance Society Boston 1826Known as cold water armyAgainst evils of alcoholTS Arthur- Ten Nights in a Baroom and What I Say

  • Temperance Movement Moderates stress temperance, no teetotalism (total elimination of intoxicants) Neal S Dow Father of Prohibition Supported Maine Law of 1851- no making or selling of liquor Other northern states follow suitMost prohibition laws are repealed because of difficulty enforcing

  • Womens Movements Women very similar to slaves, cant read, subordinate to master (husband), cant vote, can legally be beaten Spinsters- single women, roughly 10% at time of ACW

  • Womens Movement Gender Roles Market economy creates larger division in gender rolesWomen seen as physically/emotionally weak, but keepers of societys conscience Men are in danger of slipping into savage way of life, if not guided by gentle womans hand

  • Womens Movement Some women ( white and middle class) see home as a prisonMost want womens rights, but also temperance, and abolition WhyLucretia Mott- antislavery convention in London 1840Elizabeth Cady Stanton- advocated womans suffrageSusan B Anthony most popular- followers called Suzy Bs Elizabeth Blackwell- first female graduate of Medical ProfessionGrimke Sisters- abolitionists

  • Womens Movement Womens Rights Convention at Seneca Falls 1848 (Stanton)Declaration of Sentiments all men and women are created equalDemanded for womens right to voteLaunches modern womens right movement

  • Wilderness Utopias Cooperative, communitarian communities Robert Owen New Harmony 1825 (IN) socialismBrook Farm 1841 (Mass)- Oneida Community- 1848- Free Love, birth control, Eugenic Selection.Survived largely due to strong steel traps and silver making Shakers- Brought from England, longest lasting- but celibacy kills membership, done by 1940

  • Dawn of Scientific Achievement Most innovations come from EuropeExceptions Most influential scientist- Benjamin SillimanJohn Audubon- painted wildlife, spawned Audubon Society

  • Medicinestill in the Dark Ages BleedingSmall pox is dreadedLife expectancy short (40 years)Ignorant of germs and sanitation Blacksmith = dentist Home doctorsCure all fads commonAnesthesia = hard whiskey

  • Art in Antebellum America Early- no contribution to world, we are just trying to survivePuritanism- art is idle use of time Hudson River School art going from human landscapes, to local landscapes

  • Music in Antebellum America Minstrel Shows white actors with blackened faces

  • Antebellum Literature Knickerbocker Group Washington Irving Rip Van Winkle, Legend of Sleepy HollowJames Cooper- Last of the MohicansWilliam Cullen BryantEditor of NY Evening Post

  • Transcendentalism Movement Knowledge doesnt just come from observation (senses)Every person has inner light that can illuminate the highest truth and put person in direct touch with god or oversoul Ralph Waldo Emerson- American Scholar- get rid of European traditions, start American traditions

  • Transcendentalism MovementHenry David ThoreauWalden: Or life in the Woods (1854)On the Duty of Civil Disobedience Walt Whitman Collection of poems- Leaves of Grass

  • Other American Authors Henry WadsworthSong of HiawathaLouisa May AlcottLittle Women Emily DickinsonEdgar Allen Poe

  • Literary Individualists and DissentersContinue with Calvinists ideas of struggling with original sin Nathaniel Hawthorne- Scarlet LetterHerman Melville Moby Dick

  • American HistorianskindaGeorge Bancroft = Father of American HistoryWilliam H. Prescott Francis ParkmanMost are from BostonCelebratory view of history