reform movements in 19th century america

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Reform Movements in 19th Century America. America’s greatest mental health reformer. I. Religious Sources of Reform. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



Reform Movementsin 19th Century AmericaAmericas greatest mental health reformer

I. Religious Sources of ReformSecond Great Awakening: religious revivals among Protestants1. Unlike Puritans, who emphasized election, Armenian theology stated that salvation was a matter of individual choice. Individuals needed to repent, confess sins & accept God's gift of salvation. vs. Calvins TULIP model (predestination)2. Focus on the Second Coming of Christ. Need for reform of society to hasten the new Kingdom of God.3. Biggest impact among women. Evangelical mission to save others gave women more status, purpose.4. Frontier revivals featured emotional appeals while providing social meetings for settlers Charles Finney = greatest preacher of 2nd Great Awakening

B. New religious groups formed as instruments of reform1. Utopian societies created in reaction to urban growth & industrialization. Emphasis on community & withdrawal from society.2. Shakers: socially radical. Abolished families, practiced celibacy & full equality between sexes.3. Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints): Organized by Joseph Smith in 1830 as a cooperative theocracy with himself as the Prophet. Because of persecution, Smith & his followers moved from New York to Ohio to Missouri to Illinois, where he was murdered by opponents (over the issue of polygamy). Succeeded by Brigham Young, who led mass migration to Utah.

II. Non-Religious Utopian CommunitiesNew Harmony, Illinois. 1825. Socialist center founded by Robert Owen to be self-sufficient & existing without currency. Failed after several years.Brook Farm Experiment: Transcendentalist in orientation, rejecting society's standards & Enlightenment thought, emphasizing individualism & the mysteries of nature. Famous contributors: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau = Civil Disobedience, Nathaniel Hawthorne = Scarlet Letter, Herman Melville = Moby Dick & James Fenimore Cooper = Last of the Mohicans. ROMANTICISMTranscendentalism = returning to natureHudson River School: emphasized the painting the natural beauty of American landscapes

III. Other Areas of Early Social ReformTemperance: religious basis in violation of the Sabbath. Movement moved from moderation to abstinence to prohibition in its goals. Led by women but supported by factory owners who had massive absenteeism on Mondays.Education: compulsory education in every state by 1860. Led by Horace Mann, who secularized the curriculum & made it more practical to train citizens.Women's Rights: women were considered so inferior to men that they were not allowed to obtain higher education, vote or control their own propertyGrimke sisters (1838) began with abolitionism, then turned to attacking the subordinate position of women. Similarities to position of slaves noted.Seneca Falls Statement (1848): statement of women's mistreatment by men. Declaration of Sentiments (Elizabeth Cady Stanton)Improvement made possible by:Democratic spirit of Jacksonian period, which caused reformers to call for women's suffrageIndustrial Revolution demonstrated to women that they could enter occupationsReform movements, where women could crusade equally with men

D. Abolitionism1. American Colonization Society formed (1816) to gradually emancipate blacks settle them in Africa. Country of Liberia (capital: Monrovia)2. Abolitionism rose in the 1830s with an emphasis on racial equality. Intent on freeing, then educating blacks.RADICALa) William Lloyd Garrison: The Liberator demanded immediate abolition. Frederick DouglassMODERATEb) Theodore Weld worked for gradual emancipation through religious conversion. Used Oberlin College as training ground for abolitionistsUNDERGROUND RAILROAD (Harriet Tubman)c) Organized abolitionists smuggled 2,000 slaves a year out of theSouth to Canada & deluged Congress with petitions despite the gag rule (1836) which forbid the discussion of slavery in Congress.E. Humane Treatment of Individuals1) Dorothea Dix investigated & reported treatment of insane & led to creation of humane institutions2) Legal code reformsa) Reduction in crimes punishable by deathb) Abolishing of public hangings in many statesc) Abandoning flogging & other cruel punishments3) Prison reform: rehabilitation of criminals attempted to counter the tendency of prisons to create more hardened criminals. Work seen as way to reform criminals.

Jacksonian Era &The Rise of the Common ManAndrew Jackson was seen by his enemies asa monarch,trampling on the Constitution& abusing the veto power(Bettman Archives)

I. Era of Good FeelingsPeriod following War of 1812 free from partisan battles. Tradition of Secretary of State succeeding to the presidency established (George Washington Thomas Jefferson; Thomas Jefferson James Madison; James Madison James Monroe; James Monroe John Quincy Adams)Election of 1824End of caucus system of selecting candidatesAndrew Jackson receives more electoral & popular votes than John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay & William Crawford, but not a majorityHouse of Representatives chooses John Quincy Adams because of Henry Clay's (Speaker of House) supporta) Henry Clay a rival of Andrew Jackson in the Westb) John Quincy Adams & Henry Clay agreed on American Systemc) Jackson's followers accused Henry Clay & John Quincy Adams of a "Corrupt Bargain" when Clay was named Adams Secretary of StateC. Adams' presidency

II. Jacksonian DemocracyJackson's election in 1828 signaled the rise of common man1) Elected by western farmers & eastern workers2) Property qualifications for voting eliminated in most states White, male, landowners UNIVERSAL WHITE MALE SUFFRAGE3) Changing nature of political campaigns4) Jackson's inauguration symbolic of new agespoils system/patronageB. Jackson viewed himself as the spokesman of the peopleC. Native American policy Andrew Jackson = Long Knife1) Worcester v. Georgia (1832) ruled that Native Americans were not subject to the laws of a state. Jackson refused to enforce ruling2) Trail of Tears: Cherokee & other Native American tribes in Southeast U.S. forced to march 1200 miles to Oklahoma territory

D. Nullification Crisis: South Carolina 18321) South Carolina stated its opposition to tariff in 1832 which continued high rates of Tariff of Abominations (1828) cotton2) Jackson appealed to people of South Carolina to obey national law, obtained authority from Congress (Force Act) to enforce laws any way necessary & worked out a compromise tariff

NATIONALISM: preference for the entire nation over any particular area or regionSECTIONALISM: preference for a particular area or a region over the entire nation

III. War Over the U.S. BankAndrew Jackson opposed re-charter of the 2nd National Bank because the bank:1) was seen as a tool of the rich oppressing the poor (monopoly)2) foreclosed mortgages on farmers3) restricted the issuance of paper money by state banks4) Nicholas Biddle made a number of loans to anti-Jackson politiciansB. Jackson removed government deposits & placed them in local (pet) banks, destroying the National BankC. Wildcat banks created in wake of U.S. Bank's failure1) Money in circulation increased 300%2) Loans made increased 400%3) Inflation rose as loans were made to land speculators4) Sales of western land increased from 4 million acres in 1832 to 20 million acres in 1836

D. States borrowed vast sums for internal improvements, increasing state indebtednessE. Jackson distributed federal government surpluses to states, which stimulated spending and inflationF. To check the inflationary spiral, Jackson issued the specie circular which required gold & silver for land purchasesG. Panic of 1837 resulted when:1) English bankers called in loans to states & investors2) Gold supplies were depleted, preventing banks from making payments & forcing failuresAndrew Jackson = King Andrew IJacksons opponents WHIG PARTYWARMUP #1Andrew Jackson was given many nicknames during his long military & political career. One of his nicknames was The Hero of New Orleans. Write 1-2 sentences explaining why he was given that name.Name at least 2 of his other nicknames. Write a sentence explaining why he was also given that particular name.WARMUP #2Andrew Jacksons official presidential cabinet (group of advisors) had 6 members. However, he also assembled an informal group of about a dozen advisors who gave him help as needed. The press began calling this group his Lower Cabinet or Kitchen Cabinet. Many presidents since Jackson have used similar groups like this.Do you approve or disapprove of this concept? What might be some advantages and/or disadvantages of an informal group like this advising the President? Write a clear paragraph explaining your answer. Support your opinion with examples.The Peculiar Institution of American SlaveryThe whole commerce between master & slave is a perpetual exercise ofthe most unremitting despotism on the one part & degrading submission on the other.Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just;that His justice cannot sleep forever.---Thomas Jefferson (1782)

I. Slavery's Economic BaseEli Whitney's cotton gin (1793) allowed cotton to become the dominant Southern crop, more important economically than tobacco, rice & sugar King CottonBoth the North & the South profited from the prosperity of cottonCotton's huge profitability caused planters to buy more slaves & more land to take advantage of the economic potentialIn 1800, 18 million lbs. of cotton exported ($5,000,000 value), 7% of total exportsIn 1830, 300 million lbs. of cotton exported ($30,000,000 value), 41% of total exportsIn 1860, 1,700 million lbs. of cotton exported ($191,000,000 value), 57% of total exports2. 80% of the world's cotton came from the South in 1860. Most went to factories in E


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