reform movements of the gilded age
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DESCRIPTIONReform movements of the Gilded Age. Things going on:. Reconstruction in the South: ended with the Compromise of 1877 Child Labor and unsafe working conditions in factories : ended through the work of unions Panic of 1893 Huge amounts of debt, particularly with farmers: fought by Populism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Reform movements of the Gilded Age
Things going on:Reconstruction in the South: ended with the Compromise of 1877Child Labor and unsafe working conditions in factories: ended through the work of unionsPanic of 1893Huge amounts of debt, particularly with farmers: fought by PopulismRobber barons: fought with legislature such as the Sherman Antitrust ActWestward Movement has affected Native Americans: Dawes Act
ReconstructionAttempting to rebuild the infrastructure of the Southern United States after the Civil WarUS government began the Freedmans Bureau13, 14 and 15th Amendments were supported by the Republicans. Groups like the KKK attempted to end these rights.Ended by an unwritten deal that allowed for the removal of troops from the South and appointed a Southern Democrat to the Presidential Candidate
Child LaborChild labor was supported by ideas such as Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth.Children were a cheaper work force than grown immigrants.Many children were injured or suffered serious health effects due to working in the factories.Children often worked 12-14 hour days for as little as six dollars a week. Groups such as the Short Time Committees and various unions worked to guarantee shorter working days and higher pay.
Panic of 1893A serious economic depression in the United StatesTrying to keep up with the industrialization of America, rail roads were quickly built and eventually, overbuilt.Mines were also opened and precious metals flooded the market place, driving down values (inflation!!!!)Large strikes such as the Pullman Strike were enacted, hurting the economy.Many farmers were greatly in debt because of the inflation and could not raise the money to pay off their farms. They began joining the Populism movement and advocating for free silver!
PopulismCauses: new inventions introduced which hurt smaller farmers, lack of competition among railroads (trusts and monopolies!), money is in short supplyEffects: prices of farms decline, farmers earnings decrease, banks stop lending moneyFarmers Revolt: the creation of the Populist party, a party that claimed that it would fight for the people of America, also called the Peoples Party. This group blamed the Northeastern businesses for their problems.
Populism on many levelsLocally, the Populist party was known as the Grange. This group helped farmers work together to keep prices level and pressured government to make decisions to help farmers.On a slightly more national level, Populism was known as the Farmers Alliance. They fought for political actions on a national level and supported womens rights.On a truly national level, the Populists supported a Presidential candidate and called for a switch to the silver standard.
Free silverSilverites (usually farmers) wanted to increase the money supply. Due to inflation, the value of each dollar would drop but prices would rise. This would also allow for farmers to pay back their debts more easily (Why?)This movement to change monetary policy would really hurt bankers. Gold bugs fought against the call for free silver so that each dollar would buy more goods. The rest of the world is also on the gold standard (Who would fight for this?)The United States was on the bimetallic (gold and silver) standard until 1873, when the US switched to the gold standard.
In 1892, William Jennings Bryan ran for president as the Populist candidate. He would run two other times. He never won. Known for the Cross of Gold speech.
Cross of Gold Speech: William Jennings Bryan"Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interests, the laboring interests and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
American IndiansWestern United States quickly being changed by the expansion of the transcontinental railroad. Ranching starts in states such as Texas, Montana and Colorado due to a call for beef through the United States. Ranchers often drive cattle from Southern states to meatpacking areas such as Chicago.Ranchers close of huge sections of land using barbed wire. This greatly hurts any of the remaining Native Americans.The Dawes Act was passed to legally decide how Native Americans would be given land.Indian Schools were started through out the United States.