turn-of-the-century reform movements
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DESCRIPTIONTurn-of-the-Century Reform Movements. Social and Political Change in the United States at the Turn-of-the Century. Life in 1903. Average life expectancy in the U.S. was 47 Only 14% of the homes had a bathtub. Only 8% of the homes had a telephone. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Turn-of-the-Century Reform MovementsSocial and Political Change in the United States at the Turn-of-the Century
Life in 1903Average life expectancy in the U.S. was 47Only 14% of the homes had a bathtub.Only 8% of the homes had a telephone.Three minute call from Denver to NY city cost eleven dollars.There were only 8,000 cars in the U.S. and only 144 miles of paved road.Maximum speed limit in most cities was 10mph.
Average U.S. worker made between $300 and $500 per year.More than 95% of all births in the U.S. took place at home.Sugar cost .12 cents a pound. Eggs were .14 cents a dozen. Coffee cost .15 cents a pound.Most women washed their hair once a month and used borax or egg yolks for shampoo.
There were 230 reported murders in the entire U.S. Canada passed a law prohibiting poor people from entering the country for any reason.American flag had 45 stars.Canned beer and iced tea hadnt been invented.No Mothers Day or Fathers Day.
One in ten U.S. adults couldnt read or write. Only 6% of all Americans had graduated from high school.
Progressive MovementProgressives wanted to change society for the betterWomen votingLabor ReformAfrican American RightsStop drinking
Settlement House MovementWell-educated young women and men hoped to relieve the effects of poverty by providing social services for people in the neighborhood.Most famous of this experiment was Hull House in Chicago opened by Jane Addams in 1889
Houses taught English to immigrants, pioneered early childhood education, taught industrial arts, and established neighborhood theaters and music. By 1910 over 400 settlement houses.These houses provided foundation for professional social worker. Also political activists who crusaded for child-labor laws, housing reform and womens rights.
Civil RightsMinorities were ignored for the most part.From 1900 to 1905 an African-American was lynched almost every other day!Racial discrimination increased during the early 20th century.Two key problems faced by African-Americans: Money issues and no rights in society (second class citizens)
Racial SegregationBased on RaceDirected primarily against African Americans, but other groups were kept segregated
Jim Crow LawsMade discrimination legalUnequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
Two Leaders EmergeBooker T. Washington Believed equality could be achieved through vocational education; accepted social separation
W.E.B Du Bois believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African Americans
Womens MovementBy late 19th century the new woman was emerging. More time outside the home: 10% never married and divorce rising.Older generation of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton were Suffragists.
What did they want?Increased educational opportunitiesThe right to voteEquality
Labor (Work) ReformWanted to change the following bad things in the workplace Child Labor (wanted to place restrictions)Low wages and long hours (wanted to reduce work hours and increase pay)Unsafe working conditions (wanted to improve the safety conditions)
Anti Trust MovementSherman Anti Trust Act 1890The act declared illegal "every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations." Criminal penalties were provided for violators of the law, and aggrieved persons were entitled to recover three times the amount of losses suffered as a result of the violation.
Temperance MovementPeople wanted to ban the making and consuming (drinking) of alcohol.
Supported the 18th Amendment which prohibited (didnt let) people manufacture (make), sell, or transport alcoholic beverages.