reform movements and revolutions
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DESCRIPTIONReform Movements and Revolutions. Congress of Vienna. After exiling Napoleon, Euro leaders at Congress of Vienna tried to restore order and reestablish peace. Purpose: Keep world safe from war. Maintain balance of power and diminish power of France - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
After exiling Napoleon, Euro leaders at Congress of Vienna tried to restore order and reestablish peace. Purpose: Keep world safe from war. Maintain balance of power and diminish power of FranceEffects - Nationalism spread, new nations would form. Revolutions occur in Latin America.
170 Edmund Burke- reaction to French RevolutionSudden change unacceptable, agst violent overthrow of governmentFavored obedience to pol authoritySociety organized and orderedRevived churches
LAmerica in hands of Spanish and Portuguese1807-1824 series of revolts enabled most of Latin America to become independentSimon Bolivar GWasington of Latin AmericaLed troops across Andes to fight in Peru.Liberated Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru from Spanish
Jose de San Martin- his forces liberated Argentina, Chile, and Peru from Spanish authority. Led forces over AndesEffects of RevolutionGuatemala, Honduras, Costa, Rica, Nicaragua indiv. Republics.British power and Monroe Doctrine protected Latin AmericasGreat Britain dominated economy- tobacco, sugar, wheat, coffee
Greeks revolted agst Ottoman Turkish masters(Muslim control for 400 years), Russ/Turk war Ottoman empire leaves it in hands of Europeans to decide1830 Greece independent, great powers supported it.
Rural, agricultural, and autocratic Alexander I-absolute monarch freed pol prisoners, relaxed censorship, and reformed education. No constitution given to serfs Brother Nicholas took throne hired secret police, feared revolution Policeman of Europe Russian troops crushing rebellions
People should be free from restraintEquality for all, Protection of civil liberties, basic rights of peoplelimited suffrage-men with property qualify.Many believed in cons monarchy no king (limit powers of gov)
Cause: Part of a community, Common institutions, traditions, language and customsNation people have loyaltyEach nationality should have own gov. Ex: Germans wanted German nation-state
Response to rev upheavals develop civilian police forcesPrisons with separate cells (solitary confinement)Or sent to colonies ex: French sent people to New Guinea, increase in prison populationsMore disciplined society
Revolution in Germanic States, Austrian empire, Italy, Belgium, and France (again), ItalyFailed revolutions : Poland, Russia, Italy, and GermReform legislation in BritainSuccessful Revolutions: in Greece, France, and Belgium
Romanticism-artistic movement 1750-1850 appealed to emotion rather than reason. Writers combined, history, legend, and folklore with a sad character who felt out of step with society Revival of Gothic medieval architecture, Gothic lit., horror (Edgar Allen Poe)Poetry, worship of nature
Music: Romantic composers- Beethoven and Chopin, to stir deep emotionsArt: Artists painted the beauty and power of nature. Peasant life to medieval knights to current events using bright colors
1848 France republic, universal male suffrage1859-new generation Conservative leadersLouis Napoleon- support of French peopleAuthoritarian monarchyLiberalize gov, Prussia military defeat brought regime to a collapse, gov subsidies, hospitals, free medicine, advocated better housing , modernize Paris, legalizing unions-right to strike
Queen Victoria took throne in 1837 (at 18)Long reign, died in 1901 (at 82)England became wealthiest nation British Empire expansion The sun never sets on England. Queen-empress over 200 million people living outside Great BritainIndia, North America, South Pacific, etc.
Ind. Revolution - Created new towns, goods, wealth, jobs for people climbing through middle classGradual political reforms:First Reform Bill in 1832 extended vote to all men who owned property worth 10 lbsSecond Reform Act in 1867 gave the right to vote to working-class men (except agricultural workers)
Women for suffrage did not succeed until 1918 (30 & over)Universal adult suffrage 1928 extended vote to women at age 21Factory Acts limited child & women laborState supported schools est. in 1870; compulsory in 1880; free in 1891Literacy rate increased from 40% to 90% from 1840-1900.
Crimean War-Russia vs. Ottoman Empire GB and France declare war on Rus.250,000 died. 60% diseaseEffect: Breakdown of alliances causes nationalismFlorence Nightingale Medical care to Brit soldiersHer Efforts in Crimean War, helped make nursing honorable profession for middle class women.
Italy gained independ. through alliance w/ France and Prussia, & military action of Giuseppe Garibaldi. (1870)Germany-Ottoman van Bismark led Prussia to achieve unification of German states (1871)leader of real politick
Mid 1800s-Realists tried to show the world as it was.Looked at the harsh sides of life.Hoped to improve the society they described.Charles Dickens portrayed the lives of the slum dwellers and factory workers.
Drama: Plays attacked the hypocrisy of society. For example, A Dolls House showed a woman caught in a straitjacket of social rules Art: Focused on ordinary subjects, especially working class men and women
Discovery of microorganisms (germs)Principle of vaccination 1849s-1850s health movement in response cholera movementGov hiring medical doctors, clean water1890sNew Medical Schools (most closed to females), struggle
Laissez-faire Economics-economic policy of not interfering with businessesAdam Smithdefender of free markets, author of The Wealth of NationsBelieves economic liberty guarantees economic progressEconomic natural lawsself interest, competition, supply and demandCapitalismsystem of privately owned businesses seeking profits
Socialismfactors of production are owned and operated by the state for the people.Socialists think gov control can end poverty, bring equalityKarl MarxGerman journalist proposes a radical socialism, Marxism
The Communist Manifesto(1848)Marx believed society is divided into warring classesCapitalism helps haves, the employers known as the bourgeoisieHurts Have-nots, The workers known as the proletariatMarx predicted the workers will overthrow the owners
The Future According to MarxMarx believes capitalism will eventually destroy itselfInequality would cause workers to revolt, seize factories and millsCommunismsociety where people own, share the means of productionMarxs ideas later take root in Russia, China, and CubaTime has shown that society is not controlled by economic forces alone.
UnionizationUnionsassociations formed by laborers to work for changeUnions negotiate for better pay, conditions with employersSometimes they strikecall a work stoppageto pressure ownersSkill workers are first to form unionsUnion goals were higher wages, shorter hours, improved conditions
Reform LawsBritish, U.S. laws passed to stop worst abuses of industrialization1842 Mines Act in Britain stops women, children working undergroundIn 1847, workday for women, children limited to 10 hours in BritainU.S. ends child labor, sets maximum hours in 1904
The Abolition of SlaveryIn 1833, reformers help end slavery in British empireSlavery ends in the U.S. in 1865; ends by 1888 in the rest of the AmericasThe Fight for Womens RightsWomen pursue economic and social rights as early as 1848International Council for Women founded in 1888; worldwide membership
Reforms Spread to Many Areas of LifeReformers establish free public schools in Europe in late 1800sPublic schools common in U.S. by the 1850s; prison reform also sought
1859-Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species. Argued humans had developed to their present state over millions of years.To explain evolution, Darwin used the theory of natural selection which came to be known as survival of the fittest.
Darwins theory started a debate btwn scientists and religious leaders.Social Darwinism: Applying the idea of survival of the fittest to war and economic competition. Social Darwinism encouraged racism, the belief that one racial group is superior to another
**Reform bills reduced the power fo upper-class landowners by redistributing parliamentary representation. Demonstrated that social change could take place peacefully, without violence, marked emergence of middle class as dominate force. Depression of 1840s known as The Hungry Forties because so many people were literally starving. Economic conditions led to protest and rioting. Lower classes suffered from potato blight in Ireland in 1845 & from Corn Laws import tariffs that protected price of grain for English farmers but mad price of bread and other foods very high. Repeal of Corn Laws in 1846, establishment of Free Trade moved England towards greater prosperity & living conditions that characterize the later years of Victorian Age. Real wages did not keep up with price of urban living. Along with repeal of Corn Laws and the development of the railroad in 1850, England emerged from the depression.