reform movements of the 1800 s
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- 1. REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800s
- 2. The first half of the nineteenth century was a time of movers and shakers, people who saw injustices in American society and worked to abolish those injustices. These reforms would change the lives of many individuals.
- 3. What were the major reform movements of the 1800s? Treatment of the mentally ill Temperance movement Abolition of slavery Womens rights Education
- 4. TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL Leader: Dorothea Dix GOAL: better treatment of persons with mental illnesses REASON: the mentally ill were badly treated
- 5. TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL In the early 1800s, Americans viewed the United States as a land of unlimited opportunity. Many believed that those who failed did so because they had bad characters. As a result, debtors, children who were offenders, and the mentally ill were often locked up in jails with murderers and thieves. Dorothea Dix and other reformers worked to change Americans ways of thinking about these institutions and their inmates.
- 6. TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL She found the prisoners were often living in inhumane conditions.
- 7. TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL To Dorothea Dixs horror, she learned that some of the inmates were guilty of no crimethey were mentally ill persons. Dix made it her lifes work to educate the public as to the poor conditions for both the mentally ill and prisoners. Dorothea Dix Hospital, Raleigh, NC
- 8. TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL As a result of Dixs work, Massachusetts passed a law to build mental hospitals where mental illness could be treated as a disease rather than a crime. By 1852, she had persuaded 11 states to open hospitals for persons with mental illness.
- 9. TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Leader: American Temperance Union and leaders like Carrie Nation GOAL: to eliminate alcohol abuse REASON: alcohol led to crime, poverty, abuse of family
- 10. TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Reformers blamed alcohol for: poverty breakup of families crime insanity
- 11. TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT The reformers began a campaign against drinking. The campaign was known as the temperance movement.
- 12. TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Northern and Southern temperance societies used propaganda to win support for their cause. They held meetings, gave speeches, and distributed pamphlets. They even sang songs such as Drink Nothing, Boys, but Water, and Father, Bring Home Your Money Tonight.
- 13. TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT State legislators took the reformers message to heart. By 1857 several states had passed prohibition laws. Many Americans protested the laws, and most of the laws were later repealed. The temperance movement stayed alive, though, and found renewed support later in the century.
- 14. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY In 1831 white abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison founded The Liberator, a Boston anti-slavery newspaper. In the first issue, Garrison demanded the immediate emancipation, or freeing, of all enslaved persons. He urged abolitionists to take action without delay.
- 15. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY The North had many prominent African American abolitionists. Isabella Baumfree, although born into slavery in New York, gained her freedom when New York abolished slavery. She changed her name to Sojourner Truth and vowed to tell the world about the cruelty of slavery. She began a tireless crusade against injustice.
- 16. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY The most important spokesperson for the cause was Frederick Douglass. Born into slavery, Douglass secretly taught himself to read, although Southern laws prohibited it. He escaped from slavery in 1838 and settled in Massachusetts. He captivated audiences by talking about his life in bondage. He spoke out against the injustices faced by free African Americans.
- 17. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY Many abolitionists, like Douglass, did more than lecture and write. They became conductors on the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad began around 1817. It was not an actual railroad but a series of houses where conductors hid runaway enslaved persons and helped them reach the next station. Enslaved African Americans made their way to the North or Canada on the railroad.
- 18. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY Harriet Tubman became the most famous African American conductor on the Underground Railroad. Tubman fled from slavery in 1849. Later she explained why she risked her life to escape: There was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have the one, I would have the other.
- 19. Womens Rights Leaders: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth GOAL: obtain equal rights for women, including suffrage, right to own property, and education REASON: women did not have the same rights as men
- 20. Womens Rights After attending the World Anti- Slavery Convention in London in 1840 and not being allowed to participate in the discussions, Lucretia Coffin Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton spent hours talking about womens position in society. They realized that they could not bring about social change if they themselves lacked social and political rights.
- 21. Womens Rights On July 19, 1848, the first womens rights convention opened in Seneca Falls, New York. Both male and female delegates attended the convention.
- 22. Womens Rights The delegates issued the Seneca Falls Declaration that all men and women are created equal. Then the declaration listed several resolutions. One of them demanded suffrage, or the right to vote, for women. After much heated debate, it passed by a narrow margin.
- 23. Womens Rights Susan B. Anthony, a powerful organizer, joined the womens rights movement. Her father encouraged her to get an education and so she became a teacher. A dedicated reformer, Anthony joined the temperance movement and worked for the American Anti-Slavery Society. She became one of the first to urge full participation of African Americans in the womens suffrage movement. Through her efforts, the state of New York agreed to grant married women the guardianship of their children and control of their own wages. Today Anthony is one of the early movements best- remembered leaders.
- 24. Education Reform Leaders: Horace Mann GOALS: to educate all Americans REASON: more Americans were qualified to vote and needed to be able to make wise decisions about their government Education does better than to disarm the poor of their hostility toward the rich; it prevents them from being poor.
- 25. Education Reform During the 1830s more Americans qualified to vote than ever before. Educational reformers argued that voters needed good educations to make sound decisions about their government. The reformers proposed raising the standards of schools across the nation and supporting them with taxes. To accomplish these goals, they started the common school movement.
- 26. Education Reform Horace Mann spearheaded the campaign for common schools. Mann was especially concerned about poor children. Their families could not afford to send them to private schools or to contribute to the support of schools in their district. Mann won over taxpayers to his way of thinking by pointing out the benefits to society.
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