the rebellions of 1837


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THE REBELLIONS OF 1837. Time for change to a more fair government. The government could not be changed from within The powers of the Chateau Clique and the Family Compact were impossible to weaken. Reformers in Upper and Lower Canada stayed in close contact - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



THE REBELLIONS OF 1837Time for change to a more fair governmentThe government could not be changed from withinThe powers of the Chateau Clique and the Family Compact were impossible to weaken Reformers in Upper and Lower Canada stayed in close contactChange in one colony would help bring change in the othersMackenzie and Papineau prepared for armed attacksBritish did not have enough troops to fight back everywhere

LOWER CANADAStrong nationalist feelingsSupport from almost all French-CanadiansThe Church opposed the RebellionMany French Canadians were reluctant to go against the churchesThe Fils de la Liberte (Sons of Liberty) led the revolt in Lower CanadaMany small, short battles, but the British beat the Patriotes (French-Canadian forces)Many patriotes diedPapineau escaped to the US

PROBLEM: Lack of organizationLack of support from the Catholic Church

UPPER CANADAWanted an American-style democracyDivided supportersFor many British Canadians, the US was the enemyBUT, people wanted a better governmentThe new governor, FRANCIS BOND HEAD sided with the Family Compact and was very strictREBELLION!Mackenzie thought soldiers were in Lower Canada fightingToronto would be undefendedeasy to overtakeCould take over arms and ammunitionand take Bond Head prisoner

DEFEAT OF THE REBELLION OF UPPER CANADAWHY?:Not enough menLittle military experience Poor planning

Mackenzie escaped to the US disguised as a woman HOMEWORK:Read pp. 42-45

PUNISHING THE REBELSThe rebels who survived and were caught would havebeen punished severely

THE GALLOWSUnder British law, over a hundred crimes were punished by deathAfter the Rebellions, the major leaders were publicly hanged

CONVICT SHIPSOthers were transported to Bermuda or Australia for seven yearsMany people diedSimilar to conditions on the coffin ships

SLAVE LABOURIf they arrived, the prisoners were used as slave labour Worked on plantations and on government projectsGiven little foodTreated very badly

BRITAIN WAKES UPAfter the Rebellions, Britain realized they needed to change the government in the coloniesSend some people to investigateLed by Lord DurhamLORD DURHAMMore independent from the Clique and the CompactMore progressive (willing to change)Treated the rebels as lightly as possibleVery prejudiced against the FrenchHad little support. Why?The people who had fought the rebels and whose property was damaged were angry.The FrenchDurham resigns

LORD DURHAMS REPORTRecommended that the Canadas join together and that responsible government was introducedLater, all British North American colonies should join together (New Brunswick, PEI, Nova Scotia, etc.)WHO WOULD NOT BE HAPPY? THE FRENCH!THE UNIONDurham convinced the British that democracy was needed to ensure peace in CanadaResponsible government: not full democracy or independence:Elected assembly in charge of internal affairs (taxation, etc.)British still in control of foreign affairs and military

In 1840, the new governor passed the Act of Union to join the two CanadasIn 1841, they became United Canada; capital was Montreal. FRENCH VERY ANGRY!!!! STILL!