The Great Migration & the Rebellions of 1837-38. Immigration to BNA 1815-1850 Between 1815 – 1850 lots of people from Britain came to BNA This is known.

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  • Slide 1
  • The Great Migration & the Rebellions of 1837-38
  • Slide 2
  • Immigration to BNA 1815-1850 Between 1815 1850 lots of people from Britain came to BNA This is known as The Great Migration This migration changed BNA. Before the 1840 most of UC & LC was Canadien. After 1850, most people were British.
  • Slide 3
  • What triggered the Great Migration? Poverty in Britain Left for economic reasons Left for economic reasons UNEMPLOYMENT: Many lost jobs b/c of the Industrial revolution- machines took over many jobs of the people UNEMPLOYMENT: Many lost jobs b/c of the Industrial revolution- machines took over many jobs of the people Many lost farms Many lost farms The end of the Napoleonic Wars meant an economic slowdown The end of the Napoleonic Wars meant an economic slowdown FAMINE!! FAMINE!! Opportunities in the Colonies BNA meant a place for people to start over BNA meant a place for people to start over EMIGRATION: Br. encouraged people to move as a way to end its economic troubles and encourage loyalty to Britain in the colonies EMIGRATION: Br. encouraged people to move as a way to end its economic troubles and encourage loyalty to Britain in the colonies
  • Slide 4
  • What impacts did migration have? More farms Settlers cleared land for farms Settlers cleared land for farms More British people There was a huge increase in the population in BNA- especially in Upper Canada There was a huge increase in the population in BNA- especially in Upper Canada In Upper Canada- In Lower Canada In Upper Canada- In Lower Canada 1830 - about 180,000 - 1830- about 450,0001830 - about 180,000 - 1830- about 450,000 1840 - about 400,000 - 1840- about 650,0001840 - about 400,000 - 1840- about 650,000 1850- about 1 million - 1850- about 850,0001850- about 1 million - 1850- about 850,000
  • Slide 5
  • Immigrant Ships Diseases on the ships: many did not survive the voyage Diseases on the ships: many did not survive the voyage CRAMMED into the ships or cargo areas CRAMMED into the ships or cargo areas People brought food to cook their own meals People brought food to cook their own meals Trips that were to take 5-6 wks were 10-11 wks (weather) Trips that were to take 5-6 wks were 10-11 wks (weather) People thought cholera was sent by Britain to kill off and demoralize the Canadiens People thought cholera was sent by Britain to kill off and demoralize the Canadiens The government set up a quarantine at Grosse Ile about 50 km from Quebec. All immigrants had to report there The government set up a quarantine at Grosse Ile about 50 km from Quebec. All immigrants had to report there Many Irish orphans at Grosse Ile were adopted by Canadien families Many Irish orphans at Grosse Ile were adopted by Canadien families
  • Slide 6
  • Grosse Ile Grosse-Ile is connected to the Great Migration as a place of hope and tragedy. Why? Grosse-Ile is connected to the Great Migration as a place of hope and tragedy. Why? Place of hope: it was a place that the ill could recover from disease Place of hope: it was a place that the ill could recover from disease Place of tragedy: Many ill died here. Leaving many orphans. Place of tragedy: Many ill died here. Leaving many orphans. Go to www.pc.gc.ca/eng/Ihnnhs/qc/grosseile/index.aspx Go to www.pc.gc.ca/eng/Ihnnhs/qc/grosseile/index.aspxwww.pc.gc.ca/eng/Ihnnhs/qc/grosseile/index.aspx Where is Gorsse Ile? Where is Gorsse Ile? What is Grosse Ile? What is Grosse Ile? Why is this important in Canadian history? Why is this important in Canadian history?
  • Slide 7
  • Immigration to BNA 1815-1850 Leaders in Upper & Lower Canada and in Nova Scotia wanted an end to Britain's ruling in BNA BNA was ready for a democratic government so they had more autonomy over their destiny.
  • Slide 8
  • Learning from America: Looking to the US many in BNA wanted liberty or freedom from oppressive policies Looking to the US many in BNA wanted liberty or freedom from oppressive policies 3pt Approach : Liberty - The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions 3pt Approach : Liberty - The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions In 1776, America declared In 1776, America declared independence from Britain & King George III
  • Slide 9
  • Learning from America: Boston Tea Party No Taxation Without Representation!!!! Britain shouldnt have so much control!!
  • Slide 10
  • Learning from America: Boston Tea Party Led to Britain installing the Intolerable Acts which: Led to Britain installing the Intolerable Acts which: -Took away local Self-government -Ended economic activity in Boston Led to the Led to theAmerican Revolution in 1775
  • Slide 11
  • The Reformers- Who are they? The reformers wanted to change the rules and arrangements in BNA so that they would have the authority to make the decisions that affected their lives http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EaYfcxfj m8&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EaYfcxfj m8&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EaYfcxfj m8&feature=related
  • Slide 12
  • Colonial Government Democratic Government BritainGovernorCouncilsAssemblyVoters Colonial vs Democratic BritainGovernorCouncilAssemblyVoters
  • Slide 13
  • In British North America? In a Democracy? Britain holds the power BNA had colonial government Britain appointed people who made the decisions including a governor and councils Each colony also had an elected assembly that advised the governor and council but has no real power Voters elect people who have the power to make decisions Therefore, voters have power In BNA reformers wanted the people who lived in the colonies to have the power Wanted elected assemblies to control councils, not governors Wanted councils, not governors to have control over decisions Who has the power?
  • Slide 14
  • Lower Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Why they occurred 1. Wanted Responsible Government 2. Britain didnt listen 3. French Canadiens were unhappy with: - agricultural conditions - land system
  • Slide 15
  • Lower Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 LAssemblee des sixcomtes, in 1837
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Lower and Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38
  • Slide 19
  • Battle of Saint-Denis Was a Patriote Win
  • Slide 20
  • Battle of Saint-Charles The Patriotes Lost
  • Slide 21
  • Battle of Saint-Eustache The Patriotes Lost
  • Slide 22
  • Slide 23
  • Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Why they occurred 1. Wanted responsible government 2. Britain didnt listen 3. Economic recession (hardship) & crop failures 4. Rebellions in Lower Canada provided an opportunity to rebel in UC
  • Slide 24
  • Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Much smaller than Lower Canadas rebellion Wanted a government like the US Led by William Lyon Mackenzie
  • Slide 25
  • Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Started in Montgomerys Tavern 500 poorly armed rebels marched down Yonge Street Loyalist force burned down Montgomerys Tavern and won Mackenzies rebels were very poorly organized
  • Slide 26
  • Lower and Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38
  • Slide 27
  • After the LC & UC Rebellions Britain sent out Lord Durham (Radical Jack) to investigate the rebellions He expelled some rebels and investigated UCs and LCs discontent Wrote Durhams Report which became an important document in Quebecs and Canadas history
  • Slide 28
  • Durhams Report I expected to find a contest between a government and a people. Instead, I found two nations warring within the bosom of a single state Lord Durham I expected to find a contest between a government and a people. Instead, I found two nations warring within the bosom of a single state Lord Durham He saw the French Canadiens as backwards as they tried to preserve their old way of life He didnt want to give the French Canadiens power
  • Slide 29
  • Split Page Note Taking (Pg163) Lord Durham 12 Report Recommendations 1234 The Rebellions: Lord Durham and The Durham Report
  • Slide 30
  • Lord Durham 1 Sent from Britain to investigate the rebellions 2 Wrote the Durham Report Report Recommendations 1 Made the United Province of Canada (combined UC & LC) 2 Wanted Responsible Government 3 Little British involvement for local affairs 4 The Executive would be chosen by the leader of the Legislative Assembly (not the Governor) The Rebellions: Lord Durham and The Durham Report
  • Slide 31
  • Union Act 1841 AIM: -To unite the two colonies into a single unit, and to give the English-speaking people control of the newly named colonys -To unite the two colonies into a single unit, and to give the English-speaking people control of the newly named colonys -Made the United Province of Canada with two parts: Canada East and Canada West -Made the United Province of Canada with two parts: Canada East and Canada WestGovernment -Canada East and Canada West received the same amount of representatives in the Legislative Assembly even though Canada East (Lower Canada) had a much bigger population -Canada East and Canada West received the same amount of representatives in the Legislative Assembly even though Canada East (Lower Canada) had a much bigger population Executive Councils appointed by the Governor General from the elected Legislative Assembly Executive Councils appointed by the Governor General from the elected Legislative Assembly
  • Slide 32
  • The Act of Union (1841) Lower Canada had a bigger population
  • Slide 33
  • Split Page Note Taking (Pg164) Act of Union 1841 Aim - GovernmentChanges123 The Act of Union 1841
  • Slide 34
  • Split Page Note Taking (Pg164) Act of Union 1841 Aim - To unite the colonies into one political unit which would give English speaking people control of the colony GovernmentChanges 1. Governor General appointed Executive Council from Elected Legislative Assembly 2. Equal Representation from Canada East and Canada West 3. Official Government language was English The Act of Union 1841
  • Slide 35
  • 1846 Britain Changes its Trading Policy Britain adopts Free Trade Before1846: Gave special trading conditions to the colonies After 1846: Gave no special trading conditions to anyone -The colonies werent as important to Britain
  • Slide 36
  • Slide 37
  • Please Compare and Contrast the Constitutional Act of 1791(pg120) and Responsible Govt of 1848 (pg166)
  • Slide 38
  • Rebellion Losses Bill 1849 -Compensate lower Canadians for rebellion loses (property damaged or destroyed) -Heal the relationship between French and English speaking Canadians -Governor General Lord Elgin didnt like the Bill, but he had to sign it (that is responsible govt) -What do you think loyalist English speaking Canadians thought of the bill?
  • Slide 39
  • -Some wanted for the colony to join the United States (Annexation) -English speaking Tories burned down the Parliament Buildings in Montreal -Riots in Toronto and Kingston