Early Canada to Rebellions of 1837 New France - Lower Canada

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  • Early Canada to Rebellions of 1837New France - Lower Canada

  • League of the IroquoisMohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayugas, SenecaEventually joined by TuscaroasSix Nationspeople of the longhouse

  • Missionaries arrival in HuroniaHuronia (Ontario region)Iroquois & Huron at war in early 1600sHurons became economic partners with French fur-traders by 1620, along with the AlgonquiansJesuits arrived in 1615 part of dealSpread disease from village to villageEfforts to convert to Christianity

  • Smallpox Outbreak1639 raged throughout HuroniaKilled populationKilled young and old first lost folklore and futureFear of Jesuits increasedEconomic partnership with French mandated Jesuit presence

  • Iroquois vs HuronWeakened by disease, Hurons in troubleIroquois given guns by English and Dutch settlers in modern American coloniesMarch 1649 Defeat of Huron by IroquoisJesuits were tortured by Iroquois

  • French and IroquoisTruceEnded by 1680War between France/Algonquians and Iroquois/EnglishIroquois originally victorious, but later defeated by French ArmyIroquois converted to ChristianityEnglish-French peace in 1701

  • 1744 English-French war..againLasted 4 yearsEnglish captured French fort Louisbourg, but eventually gave it backFrench maintained alliance with Mikmaq and MaliseetOctober 2, 1749 English governor Cornwallis ordered destruction of Mikmaq peoples willing to pay for scalpsMeasure never went into effect London advised milder policy

  • Britains growing anxiety about AcadiansMikmaq raids increasedCornwallis doubtful of Acadians loyalty1749 demanded unconditional oath of loyalty to BritainAcadians officially neutralSome left most stayedNew governor 17531754 war broke out between France and Britain1755 ordered expulsion of Acadians 13,000Continued until 1762

  • Peace & Friendship treatiesWith aboriginal peoples Mikmaq and MaliseetAttempt to maintain loyalty/neutrality of aboriginal peopleCurrently being interpreted by SCOC

  • Treaty of ParisNew France becomes a British colony in 1763Ends British military rule of area (1759-1763)

  • Royal Proclamation of 1763Creates Province of Quebec (Lower Canada)Recognizes land rights of aboriginal peoples around Great LakesBritish goal assimilation of French settlers

  • Quebec Act of 1774Guarantees continuation of French civil law and Roman CatholicismExtends boundaries of Quebec to include the Great Lakes all the way to the Ohio Valley (between Ohio and Mississippi rivers)Angered English settlers to the south

  • Urban Life In Lower CanadaPopulation rose from 160,000 in 1790 to 650,000 in 1850Smallpox & CholeraImmigrationRural life of subsistence farmersCrop failuresEconomic decline

  • Seigneural System1627 1854Inspired by the feudal systemSeigneurs (land owners) and Habitants (tennant farmers)Hated by mostSupported by Church

  • Seigneural System

  • Church versus StateOngoing rivalry between professional elite and the Roman Catholic Church in Lower CanadaColonial governments power dwindledAll tried to influence the Habitant populationProfessional elite turned to politics as nationalistsFramed arguments in support of French-Canadian nationAspired to replace the Seigneurs and compete with the Church as the leaders of French CanadaSeigneurs often collaborated with British in exchange for lucrative appointments and pensions

  • Professional EliteFormed backbone of the Parti-canadien (later called Parti-partiote) and had increasingly hostile relationships with British merchantsSupported some aspects of seigneural system as rampart against English-speaking farmers who wanted to acquire landDeny women the right to vote

  • Constitutional Act of 1791Elected legislative assemblyTaxesStrong executive authorityLegislative councilExecutive council

  • Rebellion of 1837Failure of Constitution Act of 1791 as a system of government in Lower CanadaFrench and Parti-canadien dominated assembly wanted to strengthen their hand and decrease foreign influence of the Executive branchEnglish speaking minority dominated the executive council and elected assembly was dominated by French-speaking canadiens

  • Rebellion of 1837Struggle between haves and have-nots change and the status quoSome English-speaking Quebecers supported patriotesIrish immigrants

  • A question on $$$$$Assembly wanted control of colonys financesAssembly could initiate money bills Executive could refuse themPrisons French wanted to pay for it with higher import duties, British wanted to tax land

  • Legitimacy of electionsWhen Governor Sir James Craig annoyance with Assembly grew, he dissolved it and called new electionsNearly identical body elected and again dissolvedFrench papers criticized him jailed for treasonCraig recommended increasing immigration of British people to assimilate French and abolition of elections.

  • Louis-Joseph PapineauLeader of Parti-patrioteSpeak of the assembly in 1815Became increasingly republican

  • Increasing RadicalizationBritish attempted compromise Assembly could control all expenditures IF they agreed to pay the civil service and administration each yearPatriotes were not willing to compromise92 Resolutions demands of the Assembly Governor views it as a declaration of independence

  • Increasing RadicalizationLondon interested in compromise, but they took too longCommission appointed to study problemMarch 1837 10 Resolutions by Lord John Russell Refused all 92 Assembly resolutionsNo elected Executive CouncilExecutive Council continues to pay administrative costs without approval of AssemblyExecutive Council would be responsible to the Governor alone NOT AssemblyGovernor would continue to report to London NOT the elected Assembly

  • Patriote responseLegal agitation, then revolt if neededOrganized boycotts of imported goods and British merchantsPublic meetings one in Richelieu Valley called for revolt adopted resolution included a declaration of independenceDeveloped plans to take Montreal and Quebec by forceWarrants were issued for the arrest of Patriote leaders including L-J Papineau who fled to the countryside

  • Violent rebellionNovember 1837 violent battles between Patriotes and British troops. Close to 150 Patriotes were killed, British lost 3Patriote Army was poorly armed and trained civiliansPrisoners were rounded up and sent to jail in MontrealBritish torched 20 houses and barns (terror)

  • Violence continuesBritish turn attention to the other Patriotes living in other parts of QuebecBritish kill or burn 70 more 250 totalBritish continue to burn entire town of St-Eustache and St-BenoitA year later (1838) Patriotes try to take Mohawk community of Kahnawake raid failedMohawks capture 60 Patriotes and turn them over to the British - Jailed

  • Violence continuesBritish troops crush Patriote rebels

  • Ambitions aboundPatriotes French-speaking merchants and professionals who wanted political power in the colonyChurch Speak for French QuebecoisSeigneures Keep what they already hadEnglish-speaking merchants wanted to keep control of colonys economyBritish administrators & Parliament Colony could be useful to mother countryHabitants who wanted to improve their situation and supported the Patriotes

  • Consequences of the Rebellion in Lower CanadaIn response to the rebellion, Britain established a Special Council in 1838 made up of some English-speaking Quebecers and some strongly loyalist French QuebecersColony lost its own government altogetherEstablishment of police force in Montreal and countryside to pacify habitantsGot rid of seigneural system on island of Montreal

  • Long termLord Durhams visit Royal CommissionEnglish merchants wanted union with Upper Canada to save them from French factionsDurham hoped that with union the British would outnumber the French and they would give up nationalistic dreams and assimilation would begin

  • MondayRebellion in Upper Canada