BELLWORK 1.Why did the Rebellions of 1837 fail? 2.Why didn’t the U.S. intervene in the rebellions? 3.Describe the importance of John A. Macdonald. 4.Describe
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BELLWORKWhy did the Rebellions of 1837 fail?Why didnt the U.S. intervene in the rebellions?Describe the importance of John A. Macdonald.Describe the importance of George Etienne Cartier. List 4 reasons the Canadians distrusted the U.S.THINKER: Analyze Canadas national motto: A mari usque ad mare. What does this mean? How does it relate to Canadas path to nationhood? How does it relate to the U.S. concept of Manifest Destiny?
Similarities Shared a common constitution based on the principle of a mixed monarchy (combination of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy)Advocated responsible government Angered at non-elected Legislative Councils who were dominated by local oligarchies that controlled local trade and the institutions of state and religion Chateau Clique (Lower) & Family Compact (Upper)The economy was thrown into recession and farmers barely survived debt & crop failuresBoth provinces organized radical, democratic, political unions (Papineau & MacKenzie) Formulated boycotts, protests, and eventually, revolt!Both rebellions failed b/c of disorganization
DifferencesRebellion in Lower Canada revolved around tensions between English and French; conflict considered "'racialIn Lower Canada the wealthy and ultra-conservative Catholic clergy supported the continuation of a feudalistic, agrarian societydiscouraged economic and political liberalization, which upset the rising French-Canadian middle-class who were fighting for reform.Lower Canada rebellion was widely supported by the population, resulting in mass actions over an extended period of time, such as boycotts, strikes and sabotage. Drew harsh response from government troops and militias (concentrated in Lower Canada to deal with the crisis); burned entire villagesIn contrast, the Upper Canada Rebellion was not as broadly supported by local populations to begin with, was quickly quelled by relatively small numbers of pro-government militias and volunteers, and so was consequently less widespread and brutal in comparison.
U.S.-Canadian RelationsDespite the benefits of the Reciprocity Treaty (move towards free trade), the British North Americans did not trust the United StatesWar of 1812Issues raised by the Civil War (support of slavery)Mexican-American War and annexation of territoriesClaims of Manifest DestinyPotential spread of republican idealsEventual cancellation of Reciprocity TreatyPurchase of AlaskaFenian Raids
Group Re-Teach and Review Now that you read about Canadas final steps towards Confederation, you are going to work with a group to re-teach your concept to the class.Make sure you address why this event is important in establishing Confederation! You can also include problems that remained.Everyone in your group must contribute. Durham ReportAct of UnionReciprocity TreatyCharlottetown ConferenceQuebec ConferenceLondon Conference
Lord DurhamRebellions were a huge nuisance to BritainIn 1838, Queen Victoria came to power and in February she ordered the governor to rule without any elected representativesEven though she took power away from the people, she wanted to stabilize CanadaLord Durhams job was to go to Canada and listen to all those involved in the rebellion, discover the causes and make a recommendation to Britain about what could be done.
Lord Durham John George Lambton, Lord Durham, was from the upper class, but believed in radical ideasCommon man should have the voteEducation should be available to everyoneMiddle class was importantCatholics should have the same rights and privileges of Protestants.
Lord DurhamBritish government promised he could make any changes he wantedUpon his arrival to Canada in May 1838, he found himself in a bad situation. People had already been executed so he knew he had to act quick!Arrested top 8 ringleadersTold leaders who escaped to U.S. not to come back! Or else DEATH! Criticized members of Chateau Clique and Family CompactPeople in Canada were happy, but his own party in England was not.Upon his return to England, he resigned from politics, but still wrote his report.
Durhams Report, 1839Unite Upper and Lower Canada into one provinceIf they were combined, the French-Canadian people would have to adopt British waysSeparate British affairs from local Canadian affairsAllow Canadians to run local affairs, and Britain would continue to control colonys constitutionGrant Responsible Government Executive Council members should be chosen from the party that had the most seats in the Assembly. Gave the assembly more power than before and limited the power of the governor and Executive council.
DiscussionIn your opinion, why do Canadian historians consider Durhams report controversial?
Post-Rebellions (1840-1860)After the rebellions, the business/government elite advocated a union of Upper and Lower Canada.The Union Act combined Quebec & Ontario to create one new colony: The Province of CanadaThere were four reasons for this:The Province of Canada changed governments often; difficult to make decisionsWould help make the economy strongerPrevent possible threat of the United StatesCreate a railroad across the countryPolitical instability and underrepresented majority will create the push for confederation
Reciprocity Treaty (1855)Post-Rebellions, Canada went through a time of rapid growth and economic development.Population boom!Establishment of resource-based economyRelied on exports to England..this all changed with the Reciprocity Treaty!The treaty, signed in 1855, established free trade with the U.S. more economic growth and prosperity!Showed Canada acting more independentRelationship with Britain changed from dependence to self-assurance
Conferences leading to Confederation
CharlottetownQuebecLondonWhere/ whenCharlottetown, P.E.I Sep 1864Quebec City October 1864London December 1866DecisionsGoal was to unite Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and PEI to reduce costsMacDonald proposes total unionMaritime Union was dropped; total union consideredDelegates prepared to develop plan for confederation72 ResolutionsAdoption of bi- cameral parliamentHouse of Commons was popularly elected (population)Senate would rep. provinces & selected by GovernorResolutions formed the British North America ActDominion of Canada was born: 4 prov.Federal system of powersDivision btwn. national/provincial gov.Structure was federalGov. was parliamentaryProv. Single elected leg. House w/ no senateFr/Eng language, Ottawa is capital, MacDonald is P.M.EffectsScheduled a second conference to work out the details of a complete unionFurther discussion on splitting the Canadas to preserve French-speaking provinceCatholic church approvedColonies approve the plan except PEI/Newfoun.Set out to build transcontinental R.R.Negotiated powers of federal gov first, then granted self-gov under ActAnother 70 years before total independence
Canadian Confederation: 1867Created Dominion of Canada under British North America ActDivided government between Provincial & National governmentsProvincial governments were comprised of an elected legislative house (responsible government!)Government structure was federal, but form was parliamentaryOttawa became capital & Macdonald became PMBritain maintained control of foreign affairs
ClarificationThe Constitutional Act of 1791 (original British N.A. Act) divided Canada into Upper and Lower; established the colonial governmentBritish North America Act of 1867: Created the Dominion of Canada; established division of powers between national and provincial legislatures; created the capital at Ottawa; gave Canada domestic rights
ReviewWhy is Canadas path to independence considered evolutionary not revolutionary?
Canadian History Project!
Durham Report; 1839
Act of Union; 1840
Reciprocity Treaty; 1855
Charlottetown Conference; 1864
London Conference; 1866