Anger in Upper and Lower Canada Causes of the 1837 rebellions

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  • Slide 1
  • Anger in Upper and Lower Canada Causes of the 1837 rebellions
  • Slide 2
  • Lower Canada = French = present day Quebec Upper Canada = English = present day Ontario What do we know about the people in these 2 colonies? (think: last unit, gr. 9...)
  • Slide 3
  • This unit is about how the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada both rebelled against their government. Why? What happened?
  • Slide 4
  • Types of Government What is representative government? What is Responsible Government? What did the Colonies have? O Government is elected by voters represents the people O Voters have the power to vote out/ remove a government that does not please them (responsible to the people) O Run by Britain/ Governor and small group of aristocrats (oligarchy)
  • Slide 5
  • Types of Government What is an oligarchy? Who are the oligarchies in Upper and Lower Canada? Are the Colonies Democratic? O Rule (governance) by a small, select group of people O Upper Canada: Family Compact O Lower Canada: Chateau Clique O Colonies are NOT democratic Government is not representative or responsible
  • Slide 6
  • Types of Government O What is the government in both colonies? Governor (represents Britain) Executive Legislative Council Council (Both councils appointed by Governor all members are part of the Family compact or the Chateau Clique) Legislative Assembly (elected by Male Property owners in colony)
  • Slide 7
  • Type of Government O Why is this colonial government not democratic? O Governor and his councils (Family Compact/ Chateau clique) could Veto all laws passed in Elected legislative assembly (and often did)
  • Slide 8
  • Stop: answer in small groups! 1. What do the following words mean: A. Oligarchy B. Democracy C. Representative government D. Responsible government 2. Why was the government in Upper and lower Canada not responsible? 3. What group had all the power in Upper Canada? In Lower Canada?
  • Slide 9
  • Answers 1. Oligarchy: a small group with all power O Democracy: Power held by the people O Representative Gov.: people vote representatives O Responsible gov.: responsible to the will of the people; representatives have power to make change, and people can vote them out 2. Gov. not responsible as governor general and legislative / executive council are not elected and can veto all passed by elected legislative assembly 3. Upper Canada: Family Compact, Lower Canda: Chateau Clique
  • Slide 10
  • Upper Canada What did the Family Compact Veto? What are the Colonists angry about? Who is Robert Gourlay? O Roads/ development in crown and church land O Ignore land speculation/ problems with absentee landlords O No land O No roads (crown/ clergy land in the way) O Family Compact has all the power O Land agent O Created petition for change in policy O Arrested and deported O Unifies opposition
  • Slide 11
  • Upper Canada O Who is William Lyon Mackenzie? O Leader of protest/ for reform O Newspaper: Colonial Advocate prints articles against gov. and family compact O When Family Compact ransacked his office he sued O Elected to Legislative Assembly 1828 O Leader of Reform/ rebellion
  • Slide 12
  • Stop: answer in small groups! 1. Who was a Rebellion leader in Upper Canada? 2. What was Upper Canada mad about? (why rebel?)
  • Slide 13
  • answers 1. Who was a Rebellion leader in Upper Canada? William Lyon Mackenzie 2. What was Upper Canada mad about? (why rebel?) O No land available to immigrants O No roads (crown/ clergy land in the way) O Family Compact has all the power (not responsible government)
  • Slide 14
  • Lower Canada O What issues anger Lower Canada? 1. Discrimination against the French by the English 2. No Representation in Government 3. High Taxes
  • Slide 15
  • Lower Canada O Who were the Chateau Clique? O What is the problem with the Chateau Clique? O Ruling Oligarchy controls business and government O All English Speaking/ British O English/ protestant Minority (less than of pop.) has all the political/ economic power in a French Catholic colony O Feel like Church and Seigneurs sold out to English O Angry that Legislative Assembly is powerless (Veto power of councils/ Governor like upper Canada) and taxes are high
  • Slide 16
  • Lower Canada O What Land Problems does Lower Canada face? O How does Nationalism contribute to anger in Lower Canada? O Unlike Upper: No land speculators O Settled for 200 years = land less fertile/ crops fail O Can only feed families O Import Wheat from Upper Canada = Economic deficit/ failure O Alternative (forestry) restricted by Seigneurs O Want to protect language/ religion/ culture form British rule O Fear assimilation through English immigration (become outnumbered)
  • Slide 17
  • Lower Canada O What events anger the French? O 1. 1822: -church/ seigneurs attempt to Unite Upper and Lower Canada and make English official Language Fails O Anger and Betrayal O 1832 :Ship brought Cholera to Lower Canada O Paranoid fear Britain is using biological warfare
  • Slide 18
  • Lower Canada O Who is Louis Joseph Papineau? O Who is James Craig? O Leader of reform movement O lawyer/ Seigneur O Speaker of Legislative Assembly in 1815 O Leader of Parti Canadien O 1807 British Governor of Lower Canada O Anti- French, arrested anyone against the government O Closed reform newspaper Le Canadien
  • Slide 19
  • Lower Canada O What are the 92 resolutions? O What is the British response to the 92 resolutions? O Protesters shot by British soldier in Montreal O Papineau creates 92 resolutions demanding reform (gives to Governor) O Reply is 3 years later O 10 resolutions denying rights to Legislative Assembly O Leads to Rebellion
  • Slide 20
  • Stop: Answer in small groups! 1. Who was a Rebellion leader in Lower Canada? 2. What was Lower Canada mad about? (why rebel?) 3. What triggered the Rebellion in 1837?
  • Slide 21
  • Answers 1. Who was a Rebellion leader in Lower Canada? Louis Joseph Papineau 2. What was Lower Canada mad about? (why rebel?) O Government not representative (english minority),or responsible (veto power) O Fear of losing Language / religion / culture O Economic difficulties and upper class (seigneurs) dont allow access to lumber for more $ 2. What triggered the Rebellion in 1837? O 92 resolutions are ignored, then denied by British Gov.
  • Slide 22
  • Assignment 1. Complete a Venn Diagram comparing the CAUSES of the Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada (what were they upset about?) 2. READ p. 73 76 (including the Comic) and fill out the timeline of WHAT HAPPENED in the rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada THIS IS DUE NEXT CLASS