REBELLIONS UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1837 & 1838
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DESCRIPTIONREBELLIONS UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1837 & 1838. Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today. Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie The Reformers Vs. Family Compact. Lower Canada Louis Joseph Papineau The Patriots Vs. Chateau Clique. Rebellions of. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
REBELLIONS UPPER & LOWER CANADA1837 & 1838
Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today
Upper CanadaWilliam Lyon MackenzieThe ReformersVs. Family CompactLower CanadaLouis Joseph PapineauThe PatriotsVs. Chateau CliqueProtesting against the Oligarchies controlDesired a Responsible GovernmentWanted less Church controlAssembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur
RebellionsofWhat are they upset about prior to the Rebellions?
A lack of democracy!!!!!They wanted Responsible GovernmentResponsible Government
Historical Origins of Responsible Government
In reality, Constitutional Act 1791 creates system of Irresponsible government
Governor appoints Executive Council (i.e., Cabinet)
Executive Council supported by appointed Legislative Council
Legislative Council dominated by Family Compact (Upper Canada) & Chateau Clique (Lower Canada)
Elected Legislative Assembly by-passed despite its constitutional power to levy taxes and grant supply4Irresponsibile Government
A lack of democracy!Irresponsible Govt Legislative Council(Appointed)Legislative Assembly(Elected)Executive Council(Advisory)Governor GeneralGovernor General AppointsExecutive Council ; carries out Governors instructions & advises Governor (who may ignore their advice)5
Upper Canada (Ontario)
William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family CompactDid not support the Constitution Act of 1791Believed in responsible govt. Demanded 2 constitutional reformsElected Legislative CouncilExecutive council responsible to AssemblyReformers were against Clergy land reserves Land grants to the oligarchies, Influence of the Church of England Power of the BanksGovernance in the ColonyColony had elected Assembly representatives from each districtWould make plans for colony but would need approval of Governor & CouncilsGovernor appointed Executive & Legislative Councils from Upper Class, & werent bound to follow wishes of the peopleReal power was in the hand of the Governor & Councils, the people had no REAL influence
The GovernorsBritish men appointed by English monarchUnfamiliar with local issues & conditionsDepended on the advice of their councilsUsually United Empire LoyalistsWere wealthy & better educated so better able to govern ordinary people
Upper Canada - problemsThe way the colony was governed (appointed rather than elected)Land unfair way the land was granted (best land given to family compact & Clergy often left uncleared & undeveloped)Transportation roads were inadequate. Money was spent on canal building (which benefited the merchants Family Compact)Special Privileges for a FewGovernor appointed all officialsCouncils, judges, sheriffs, justice of peaceCoroners, customs officers, postal officials, immigration officers & Indian Affairs officialsAs head of military he appointed 1500 officersMade land grants & spent crown $ for pensions to friendsGood jobs to Family Compact & friendsLand IssuesBest land given to Family Compact/friendsExec & Leg Councilors controlled 90% of land, not farmed, would sell for a profit1/7 of land went to Anglican Church, not other religions though (clergy reserves)New settlers received only poor, uncleared farmland
Land ConcessionsCLERGYGovernment land reserveScattered non-farming land stops progress. They are left treed and undeveloped.Transportation IssuesFarmers needed roads to get to/from marketsMost were impassableGovt. collected taxes to build canals, mainly used to benefit merchants & Family Compact/friendsFarmers felt govt. did not grant land/$ to them for land/toolsBankers & merchants grew rich
What Happened in the Rebellion?The rebellion failed.
Rebels (more than 1000) were forced to march to Toronto and placed in unheated jails with little food. Many died.Those who followed orders went free2 ringleaders were hangedMany transported to Bermuda/AustraliaMackenzie flees to the USLower Canada - ProblemsFarmers were against building canals and harbours that would benefit merchantsEnglish ImmigrantsThe English (Chateau Clique) dominated the governmentThe laws could be vetoed by the Legislative Council, the Executive Council, and the British appointed governorThe members of the Councils we appointed for life, the could not be voted out at election time Members appointed by the governor were usually English speakingFrench speaking Habitants concerns never represented
Chateau CliqueSmall group of powerful business peopleBritish backgroundBelieved they should hold all the powerWanted the Anglican Church to stay powerfulWanted more English speaking settlers in the colonyParti PatrioteWanted French ways to remainLeader Louis Joseph PapineauFavoured traditional R/C societyResented English favouritismLand issuesLouis-Joseph Papineau led the Patriots against the governor & the Chateau Clique, & loss of land to growing Anglophone populationCultural conflict between French & English Cdns.Fr. dominated the Assembly, was controlled by the Br. CouncilsCreated the 92 ResolutionsSome wanted USA Republic system
Lower Canada (Quebec)
What Happened?The rebellion failed.Colony was under martial lawElected assemblies disappeared for 3 years12 rebels were hanged58 sent in chains to AustraliaPapineau & others fled to U.S. under threat of execution.Consequences of RebellionRebellion Losses BillLed to the Durham Report of the 1840sFrench Assimilation into English CanadaAct of Union unites the two CanadasAchievement of Responsible GovernmentLed to Confederation in the 1860s
Lord Durhams Report
Durham's Recommendations to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minority to assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canada to grant responsible government Consequences of Durham's Recommendations Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1840 Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867Created the roots of todays French separatismRebellions Losses Bill 1849Reformers controlled the Assembly, their bill;sought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions. was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown.was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal.
The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.A system based on British ParliamentProposed limited central government balanced by provincial power.Rejected the strict application of "rep by pop. the senate represented regionsCalled for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons.