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Popular rebellions. Socio-economic context. Labourers are able to command higher wages Landowners are struggling to adapt to new conditions Landowners try to revive feudal services Squeezing of tenants in manorial courts. Poll tax of 1381. Regressive tax, falling on every adult male - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Popular rebellionsSocio-economic contextLabourers are able to command higher wagesLandowners are struggling to adapt to new conditionsLandowners try to revive feudal services Squeezing of tenants in manorial courts

Poll tax of 1381Regressive tax, falling on every adult maleHigher in 1380 than beforeFalls hardest in most populous parts of country, esp. East AngliaAfter mass tax evasion in first assessment, the crown insists on harsher enforcement of collection

Chronology of events30 May 1381 Refusal to pay poll tax in Brentwood, Essex4 5 June Rebellion breaks out in Kent (Dartford)10 June Rebels arrive in Canterbury12 June Rebels arrive in Blackheath in London14 June King meets rebels at Mile End. Execution of Simon Sudbury (Chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury) and Robert Hales (Treasurer of England).15 June fFrther meeting of king and rebels at Smithfield. Killing of Wat Tyler. Outbreak of violence between city militia and rebelsCollapse of rebellion soon thereafter

Uprisings elsewhereOther uprisings in 1381 in East Anglia, Hertfordshire These provoke disobedience across southern and midland EnglandAbbeys of St Albans and Bury of St Edmund prominent targets of urban anger (the monasteries are harsh urban landlords)Authorities strike backFrom 22 June 1381 royal household goes on progress through the counties involved in the uprising more or less a military campaignMany who take part are given punishments in courtStill, remarkably few people put to death. Probably the crown is too afraid to take severe reprisals.Who were the rebels?Most participants are peasant farmers, with a plot of land. They are well below gentry status, but are generally not landless labourers. Slight bias towards the better off. Many of the rebels have played a role in local government (as reeves, chief pledges, bailiffs, jurors, etc.)What do the rebels do?Destruction of court recordsAttacks on property and manorial estatesPersonal violence and abuse towards shire officials, such as JPs (but relatively little bloodshed in regions)Murder of high-ranking political figures such as SudburyTargetingVery few of the first collectors of the poll tax are persecuted.Those who enforce the collection of the tax are punished Mark Ormrod: Peasant uprising is a protest against twenty years of mismanagement.Rebels want a return to the law of Winchester, i.e. return to a system of community policingIdeologyViolence not confined to personal retributionRebellion cannot be explained solely in terms of immiseration or widespread serfdomThere are general aims to protect newfound rights from the encroachment of lordsReligious ideas of Christian equality (John Balls sermon)

Jacquerie of 1358Uprising north of Paris, around the towns of Compigne and SenlisSparked by imposition of tallage by cathedral chapter of Laon.Participants are mainly rural artisansAppears to be part of wider patterns of anti-noble aggression, sponsored in part by Etienne Marcel, a bourgeois in charge of Paris government at this timeCiompi rebellion of 1378Primarily an urban phenomenonSeems to be an outgrowth of organized forms of political association among craft workersLeads to the overthrow of patrician government in Florence in 1378. Replaced with a council of 32 elected by the popolo minuto (labouring classes)Measures are taken to regulate the wool industry, providing greater protection for workers