The Rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada 1837-1838

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The Rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada 1837-1838. Unit 2: Land and Government between 1814-1840. Why rebel in Lower Canada?. Conflict between French people and Chateau Clique. French culture and way of life threatened by oligarchy. Undemocratic government. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


The Rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada 1837-1838

Unit 2: Land and Government between 1814-1840The Rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada 1837-1838Conflict between French people and Chateau Clique.

French culture and way of life threatened by oligarchy.

Undemocratic government.

1833 depression unemployment and bad harvest little government help.Why rebel in Lower Canada?What is nationalism? - attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity.

Grew because of lack of government representation, discrimination, and unfair taxes.

Climate in Lower CanadaLouis Joseph Papineau Led the reform movement formed a radical group called the Patriotes Held public demonstrations against the oligarchy.Came up with 92 resolutions outlining Canadien grievances.

Mostly over the way the colony was governed. Control of the chateqeux clique and not by the people. 41837: British appoint Lord Russell to intervene 10 resolutions: Rejected any form of responsible government.

Result?? Fueled reform movement The VindicatorBoycott English goods and banks. Members of Legislative Assembly (Patriotes) refused to approve taxes.

Lord Russell responds:The Vindicator: make lower canada Ireland of North America. 5

The Patriotes and Fils de la Liberte joined together in street fights against the Tory Doric Club in the fall of 1837

In fear of an armed uprising governor proclaimed martial law, banned protests, newspapers, and issued charges of treason. Martial law: use of military to enforce law. Tory Doric Club: group of young anglophones, suppot British government. 6St. DenisNorth-east of Montreal

Patriotes led by Wolfred Nelson fought British soldiers to a stand off.

December 1, 1837 rebels surrendered to British army.

Many leaders of the Patriot fled to the US.Villages burned by British army and the Doric Club.British 32 DeadFrench/Patriotes 73 dead 29 Executed for Treason38 Deported to Australia


Upper Canada Rebellion: 1837Government set in place that was not responsible to the elected assembly.

Control of clergy reserves.

Unfair land policies catered to the upper class.

1833 depression widespread crop failures.Upper Canada: Why reform?William Lyon Mackenzie Radical leader and politician.

Critic of the colonial government.

Attacked Family Compact in his newspaper: Colonial Advocate.

1828, Mackenzie entered politics and under the Reformer banner was elected to the Reformer Assembly.Expelled from the Assembly because of his views, he was asked to leave by the Speaker on a number of occasions, his constituents continued to re-elect him.1826 Tory gangs broke into the offices to ruin its printing press fuelled the reform movement. 11

SIR FRANCIS BOND HEADAppointed Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Can. allied with Family Compact and was against reform movement.

He called the radical movement Yankee-loving traitors

Attempted to defuse the Reformers by appointing Robert Baldwin and two others to the Executive Council.

The RebellionFall 1837 rebellion in Lower Canada Mackenzie saw this as an opportunity:1. Held public demonstrations. 2. Trained troops.3. Called for an attack while troops were busy fighting the rebellion in Lower Canada.

December 4, 1837 first death was British Loyalist Colonel Robert Moodie (the messenger).

December 5, 1837 Mackenzie and his troops continue on Yonge St. but missing half their troops because of miscommunication.

December 7, 1837 Van Egmond arrived but was too late British troops were too strong.

The Rebellion: Battle of Montgomerys Tavern Close to Toronto on Yonge St. 14

The British artillery fired INTO the tree tops. Massive chunks of trees were brought down, causing a great deal of confusion amongst the rebels. The battle was over in less than 30 minutes.

15Many of the leaders were transported to the penal colonies.

Colonel Van Egmond was tried, convicted and died in a Toronto jail.

John Montgomery was captured, escaped and then returned to Canada after the general amnesty to rebuild his tavern on the exact location of the original.

Aftermath?Put 1,000 on Mackenzie's head He had already left the country dressing in woman's clothing.

Unfortunately, he had dropped his briefcase as he was fleeing. It had a list of everyone involved. Governor Bond Head Mackenzie would go on to form Mackenzies provisional government along with other reforms and they put a 500 pounds on Bonds Head. 17After the rebellions the British Government : new monarch Queen Victoria appointed Lord Durham to report on the reasons of the rebellion.

What did he find?What did he conclude?Lord Durham