The Great Migration & the Rebellions of 1837-38

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The Great Migration & the Rebellions of 1837-38. Immigration to BNA 1815-1850. Between 1815 1850 lots of people from Britain came to BNA This is known as The Great Migration This migration changed BNA. Before the 1840 most of UC & LC was Canadien. After 1850, most people - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Great Migration& the Rebellions of 1837-38

  • Immigration to BNA 1815-1850Between 1815 1850 lots of people from Britain came to BNA

    This is known as The Great MigrationThis migration changed BNA.

    Before the 1840 most of UC & LC was Canadien.

    After 1850, most people were British.

  • What triggered the Great Migration?Poverty in BritainLeft for economic reasonsUNEMPLOYMENT: Many lost jobs b/c of the Industrial revolution- machines took over many jobs of the peopleMany lost farmsThe end of the Napoleonic Wars meant an economic slowdownFAMINE!!Opportunities in the ColoniesBNA meant a place for people to start overEMIGRATION: Br. encouraged people to move as a way to end its economic troubles and encourage loyalty to Britain in the colonies

  • What impacts did migration have?More farmsSettlers cleared land for farms

    More British peopleThere was a huge increase in the population in BNA- especially in Upper Canada

    In Upper Canada- In Lower Canada1830 - about 180,000 - 1830- about 450,0001840 - about 400,000 - 1840- about 650,0001850- about 1 million - 1850- about 850,000

  • Immigrant ShipsDiseases on the ships: many did not survive the voyageCRAMMED into the ships or cargo areasPeople brought food to cook their own mealsTrips that were to take 5-6 wks were 10-11 wks (weather)People thought cholera was sent by Britain to kill off and demoralize the CanadiensThe government set up a quarantine at Grosse Ile about 50 km from Quebec. All immigrants had to report thereMany Irish orphans at Grosse Ile were adopted by Canadien families

  • Grosse IleGrosse-Ile is connected to the Great Migration as a place of hope and tragedy. Why?Place of hope: it was a place that the ill could recover from diseasePlace of tragedy: Many ill died here. Leaving many orphans.

    Go to www.pc.gc.ca/eng/Ihnnhs/qc/grosseile/index.aspx

    Where is Gorsse Ile?What is Grosse Ile?Why is this important in Canadian history?

  • Immigration to BNA 1815-1850Leaders in Upper & Lower Canada and in Nova Scotia wanted an end to Britain's ruling in BNA

    BNA was ready for a democratic government so they had more autonomy over their destiny.

  • Learning from America:Looking to the US many in BNA wanted liberty or freedom from oppressive policies3pt Approach : Liberty - The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions In 1776, America declared independence from Britain & King George III

  • Learning from America: Boston Tea PartyNo Taxation WithoutRepresentation!!!!Britain shouldnt have so much control!!

  • Learning from America: Boston Tea PartyLed to Britain installing the Intolerable Acts which:-Took away local Self-government-Ended economic activity in Boston Led to the American Revolution in 1775

  • The Reformers- Who are they?The reformers wanted to change the rules and arrangements in BNA so that they would have the authority to make the decisions that affected their liveshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EaYfcxfjm8&feature=related

  • Colonial GovernmentDemocratic GovernmentColonial vs Democratic

  • In British North America?In a Democracy?Britain holds the powerBNA had colonial governmentBritain appointed people who made the decisions including a governor and councilsEach colony also had an elected assembly that advised the governor and council but has no real powerVoters elect people who have the power to make decisionsTherefore, voters have powerIn BNA reformers wanted the people who lived in the colonies to have the powerWanted elected assemblies to control councils, not governorsWanted councils, not governors to have control over decisionsWho has the power?

  • Lower Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Why they occurred 1. Wanted Responsible Government 2. Britain didnt listen

    3. French Canadiens were unhappy with: - agricultural conditions - land system

  • Lower Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 LAssemblee des sixcomtes, in 1837

  • Lower and Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38

  • Battle of Saint-Denis Was a Patriote Win

  • Battle of Saint-CharlesThe Patriotes Lost

  • Battle of Saint-EustacheThe Patriotes Lost

  • Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Why they occurred 1. Wanted responsible government 2. Britain didnt listen

    3. Economic recession (hardship) & crop failures 4. Rebellions in Lower Canada provided an opportunity to rebel in UC

  • Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Much smaller than Lower Canadas rebellion

    Wanted a government like the US

    Led by William Lyon Mackenzie

  • Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38 Started in Montgomerys Tavern

    500 poorly armed rebels marched down Yonge Street

    Loyalist force burned down Montgomerys Tavern and won

    Mackenzies rebels were very poorly organized

  • Lower and Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837-38

  • After the LC & UC Rebellions Britain sent out Lord Durham (Radical Jack) to investigate the rebellions

    He expelled some rebels and investigated UCs and LCs discontent

    Wrote Durhams Report which became an important document in Quebecs and Canadas history

  • Durhams Report I expected to find a contest between a government and a people. Instead, I found two nations warring within the bosom of a single state Lord DurhamHe saw the French Canadiens as backwards as they tried to preserve their old way of life

    He didnt want to give the French Canadiens power

  • Split Page Note Taking (Pg163)The Rebellions: Lord Durham and The Durham Report

    Lord Durham12Report Recommendations1 2 3 4

  • The Rebellions: Lord Durham and The Durham Report

    Lord Durham1 Sent from Britain to investigate the rebellions2 Wrote the Durham ReportReport Recommendations1 Made the United Province of Canada (combined UC & LC) 2 Wanted Responsible Government 3 Little British involvement for local affairs 4 The Executive would be chosen by the leader of the Legislative Assembly (not the Governor)

  • Union Act 1841AIM: -To unite the two colonies into a single unit, and to give the English-speaking people control of the newly named colonys

    -Made the United Province of Canada with two parts: Canada East and Canada West

    Government -Canada East and Canada West received the same amount of representatives in the Legislative Assembly even though Canada East (Lower Canada) had a much bigger population

    Executive Councils appointed by the Governor General from the elected Legislative Assembly

  • The Act of Union (1841)Lower Canada had a bigger population

  • Split Page Note Taking (Pg164)The Act of Union 1841

    Act of Union 1841 Aim-

    GovernmentChanges1

    2

    3

  • Split Page Note Taking (Pg164)The Act of Union 1841

    Act of Union 1841 Aim- To unite the colonies into one political unit which would give English speaking people control of the colonyGovernmentChanges1. Governor General appointed Executive Council from Elected Legislative Assembly 2. Equal Representation from Canada East and Canada West3. Official Government language was English

  • 1846 Britain Changes its Trading PolicyBritain adopts Free TradeBefore1846: Gave special trading conditions to the coloniesAfter 1846: Gave no special trading conditions to anyone

    -The colonies werent as important to Britain

  • Please Compare and Contrast the Constitutional Act of 1791(pg120) and Responsible Govt of 1848 (pg166)

  • Rebellion Losses Bill 1849-Compensate lower Canadians for rebellion loses (property damaged or destroyed)

    -Heal the relationship between French and English speaking Canadians

    -Governor General Lord Elgin didnt like the Bill, but he had to sign it (that is responsible govt)

    -What do you think loyalist English speaking Canadians thought of the bill?

  • -Some wanted for the colony to join the United States (Annexation)-English speaking Tories burned down the Parliament Buildings in Montreal -Riots in Toronto and Kingston

    ****Slide 2Tired of being vetoed and having no say in political decisionsThe Patriote had sent a list of demands and the British had ignored them and took away the legislative assemeblies tax revenues.Overcrowded---poor land conditions---great debt and discontent. Explain seignuerial system.

    Slide34000 people -called for revolt and declared their independenceDeveloped Plans to overthrow Montreal and then QuebecCollect $$$Women formed associations Boycotted British goods

    Slide4St Denis : Papineau fled to USPatriotes surprised the unprepared British army Saint Charles: 150 patriotes dead Saint Estache: 1500 British against 200 Patriote--led to 70 dead and 120 captured. (Patriote dead were shot or bayoneted while trying to surrender)

    Government Issued Warrants for Patriote Leaders******

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