the rebellions: the beginning of the end?
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DESCRIPTIONThe Rebellions: the Beginning of the End?. Intro The Events of 1837-38 Durham to Today: Interpreting 1837-8 Revolution Reconstruction The Beginning of the End or the End of the Beginning?. Events of 1837-38. Why did rebellion break out in the Canadas? Brewing crises in the Canadas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Rebellions: the Beginning of the End?IntroThe Events of 1837-38Durham to Today: Interpreting 1837-8Revolution ReconstructionThe Beginning of the End or the End of the Beginning?
Events of 1837-38Why did rebellion break out in the Canadas?Brewing crises in the CanadasAvailability of landNewcomers vs. longer-settledTory office holders vs Reform oppositionmasculine-democratic-republican opposition
Events of 1837-38Differences between UC and LCLC: Seigneurial tenure -- landlord-tenant tensionsLC: French-Cdn majorityUC: Greater number of British immigrants -- Tory office holders have much wider supportUC: Presence of Moderate Reformers
Events of 1837-38Battles in District of Montral -- British troops win mostUprisings in Toronto and London -- put down by militiaBorder raidsRebels hanged and transportedState system entirely remade Union of LC & UC most obvious result -- remaking of how Canadians governed longer and deeper result
Interpretations: Lord DurhamWhat happened and why?a contest between a government and a people?Upper Canada: A petty, corrupt, insolent, Tory cliqueLower Canada: two nations warring in the bosom of a single state
Interpretations: Nationalists: French CanadaF.-X. Garneau -- Histoire du Canada, 1845-48, 3 volumesFr-Cdns a distinct people with a history and a cultureAbb Lionel GroulxMoral interpretationPatriotes defenders of the nation, but wrong to be democratic and anti-clerical
Interpretations: Nationalists: English CanadaDonald Creighton Commercial Empire of the St. Lawrence (1937)Patriotes represented outmoded agrarianism Liberal historians -- Arthur LowerCritical of the colonial oligarchy, sympathetic to moderate reformRadical reformers illegitimately hijacked a perfectly good, moderate reform mvmt with American-style republicanismYet: The Rebellions were blessings in disguise, the corner stones of Canadian nationhood. (Lower)
Interpretations: Social HistoriansSince 1970s -- Social HistoriansFernande Ouellet Allan Greer economic, social, and cultural roots of the conflict
Interpretations: CurrentAllan GreerIan McKayPolitical eventsSerious challenges to the legitimacy of colonial stateIdeological Republicanism or Civic Humanism versus Tories leading to Liberalism
RepublicanismAll men are created equalDeclaration of Independence, 1786We the People of the United States do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.Constitution of the United States (1787)"The principle of any sovereignty resides essentially in the Nation. No body, no individual can exert authority which does not emanate expressly from it.Dclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen(1789)
What were the reasons for rebellion in Upper Canada?William Lyon MackenzieElection of 1836Declaration of the Reformers of the City of Toronto to their Fellow Reformers in Upper Canada, Toronto, August 2, 1837Tensions in Upper Canada
The Declaration of the Reformers of the City of TorontoThe time has arrived, after nearly half a centurys forbearance under increasing and aggravated misrule, when the duty we owe our country and posterity requires from use the assertion of our rights and the redress of our wrongs.Government is founded on the authority and is instituted for the benefit of a people; when, therefore, any government long and systematically ceases to answer the great ends of its foundation, the people have a natural right given them by their Creator to seek after and establish such institutions as will yield the greatest quantity of happiness to the greatest number
The Declaration of the Reformers of the City of TorontoWe have now to choose on the one hand between submission to the same blighting policy as has desolated Ireland, and on the other hand, the patriotic achievement of cheap, honest, and responsible government.The affairs of this country have been ever subjected in the most injurious manner to the interferences and interdictions of a succession of Colonial Ministers in England who have never visited the country the Reformers of Upper Canada are called upon by every tie of feeling, interest, and duty, to make common cause with their fellow citizens of Lower Canada, whose successful coercion would doubtless be in time visited upon us, and the redress of whose grievances would bet the best guarantee for the redress of our own.
What were the reasons for the outbreak of rebellion in Lower Canada?British American Land CompanyNinety-Two Resolutions (1834)Russells Resolutions (1837)boycottSix Counties Address, Montral, October 31, 1837Rebellion
The Six Counties AddressFellow CitizensThe wise and immortal framers of the American Declaration of Independence, embodied in that document the principles on which alone are based the Rights of Man; and successfully vindicated and established the only institutions and form of government which can permanently secure the prosperity and social happiness of the inhabitants of this Continent, whose education and habits, derived from the circumstances of their colonization, demand a system of government entirely dependent upon, and directly responsible to, the People.government is but a mere human institution intended for the benefit of all who may consent to come, or remain under, its protection and control; and therefore, its form may be changed whenever it ceases to acccomplish the ends for which such government was established
The Six Counties Addressthe People of this Province have for a long series of years complained by respectful petitions, of the intolerable abuses which poison their existence and paralyse their industry. Far from conceding our humble prayers, aggression has followed aggression, until at length we seem no longer to belong to the British Empire for our own happiness or prosperity, or freedom or the honour of the British Crown or people, but solely for the purpose of fattening a horde of useless officials
Fils de la libertDoric ClubBattle of St-DenisBattle of St-Charles850 Patriotes arrested - 12 hanged, 85 transportedRebellion in Lower Canada
Montgomerys Tavern885 people arrested, 2 hanged (1837)Border raids -- Niagara, Detroit156 arrested, 18 hanged, 99 deported (1838)Rebellion in Upper Canada
What were results and meaning of the Rebellions?Lord Durhams Reportself-govtrepresentative govtunion of the CanadasAct of Union,1840United Province of Canadaequal representationEnglish offical languageResults of the Rebellions
The Beginning of the End?Challenged British state structureLeads to Union GovernmentBritish authority & importance of loyalty re-established
DiscussionOuellett says that the habitants were not trying to promote a democratic society. Why did they act, then? What were the leaders of the revolt after? How might Ouellet characterized this conflict?What sort of society were the Patriotes trying to usher in, according to Greer?Were the rebellions a challenge to the British Empire, or were they something else?