Manna-18th and 19th century Rebellions in Palestine

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<ul><li><p>7/30/2019 Manna-18th and 19th century Rebellions in Palestine</p><p> 1/17</p><p>Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Rebellions in Palestine</p><p>Author(s): 'Adel Manna'Reviewed work(s):Source: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 51-66Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Institute for Palestine StudiesStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2537982 .Accessed: 06/12/2011 05:31</p><p>Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms &amp; Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p>JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of</p><p>content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.</p><p>University of California Press andInstitute for Palestine Studies are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize,</p><p>preserve and extend access toJournal of Palestine Studies.</p><p>http://www.jstor.org</p>http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=ucalhttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=palstudhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2537982?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2537982?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=palstudhttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=ucal</li><li><p>7/30/2019 Manna-18th and 19th century Rebellions in Palestine</p><p> 2/17</p><p>EIGHTEENTH-ANDNINETEENTH-CENTURYREBELLIONS IN PALESTINE'ADEL MANNA'</p><p>At he imef hentifada,istorians,oliticalcientists,nd ournal-ists calledattentiono a previous alestinianebellion,n 1936-39.While he nalogy as apparento those n allsides, he omparisonwasmore requentlyade y sraelisnorderohighlightertain ega-tive spectsnboth prisings.In contrastothe1936-39 evolt,eryittle as beenwrittenboutseveral ther opular prisingshat ook lace nPalestineuringheeighteenthndnineteenthenturies,r ndeed bout therventsnthemodern istoryfthe ountryeforehebeginningf heZionistenterprise.t strue hat istoryoesnot epeattself,ach vent av-ing tsunique ircumstanceshatdetermineow tplaystself ut.Still, familiarityith arlier ebellionsould nrichurunderstand-ing f hemost ecentntifada,nduncoveringhe ast san mportantaspect frebuildingnation. his swhat iveshe tudyf he opu-lar rebellionsn times astan importanceeyondhe vents er se,milestoneshoughhey eren thehistoryfmodernalestine.Writ-ingPalestinianistoryince he ighteenthenturys also mperative</p><p>'AdelManna' s a historianfthemodernMiddle ast nd authorfA'iamFilastiniAwakhirl-'Ahdl-'Uthmani:800-1918.Anearlierversionf his rticleppearedn ArabicnQadayaUerusalem),ol.2(February990),pp.3-22.JournalfPalestinetudies XIV, o. 1 (Autumn1994), pp. 51-66.</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 Manna-18th and 19th century Rebellions in Palestine</p><p> 3/17</p><p>52 JOURNAL OF PALESTINE STUDIESfor iberating inds fthemyth hatnothing orth elling appened nPalestine ntil he advent f Zionism.</p><p>The last twocenturies f Ottoman ulesaw three opularuprisingsofsignificancenPalestine.The first, hich ookplace n and aroundJerusalemn 1703-5, s known s thenaqib l-ashraf ebellion ecauseofthe eading oleplayed yJerusalem'saqib l-ashrafthehead oftheassociation fsharifs, r direct escendants f theProphet) fJerusa-lem.' Thesecondtookplace n 1825-26, lsoinjerusalem.Despite heinterveningentury nd a quarter, hesefirst wo rebellions haredmanycharacteristicsn terms f causes and the unfolding f events.The third evoltwas against he rule ofMuhammadAliand his sonIbrahim n the pring f 1834. In contrasto the woearlier ebellions,each ofwhich astedfor woyears, his evolt as crushedwithin fewmonths.But hefact hattwas thickwith vents nd that arge ectorsofthePalestinianopulation, romGalilee n thenorth o Hebron ndGaza inthesouth, articipated ives ta special place nthehistory fmodernPalestine.A detailed tudy f thesepopularuprisingsies beyond he cope ofthis tudy, nd we shall atisfy urselves ith utliningheirmain har-acteristics.We shall then ompare hesewith henationalist ebellionsofthe wentiethentury. urhope s thatnhighlightingoth he on-stant nd changing actorshat rove hese xtraordinaryvents,nd intryingo seewhat s common o all three nd what s peculiar oeach,thiscomparativetudymaydeepenourunderstandingfthe ntifadaof the Palestiniansgainst sraelioccupation.TheRebellionfNaqib l-Ashraf</p><p>There s nohistoricalvidence f nyorganizedopular esistanceoOttoman uleorpolicies n any partof Palestine rior o thenaqibal-ashraf ebellionn thevery arlyyears f theeighteenthentury. heOttoman tate was strong nd centralizedn the sixteenthentury,which swhy t thetimeBedouin lanswere loneinraising n occa-sionalchallenge o the uthorities. utbythe eventeenthentury,heOttoman dministrationn Palestine,s in neighboring egions, adweakened, nd conflictsmong ocal rulers ncreased. The combina-tion of their uarrels nd the deteriorationfthesecurityituationtook tstollon the ocalpopulation, holost faithnthe tate's bilitytoprovideusticeandprotection. hepeople earned oprotecthem-selves nd their ropsfrom hedepredationsfbandits, edouin ribes,and greedy axcollectors.Thus, nthe hadowofweakand ineffectivettoman ule, ocal ead-ersemerged rommongfamiliesfrural haykhsndurbannotables.Itwas thisgroup hat ed thepopulationwhenthey esistedOttomangovernors ho evied xcessive axes ndtried o collect hem yforce.</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 Manna-18th and 19th century Rebellions in Palestine</p><p> 4/17</p><p>18TH AND 19TH CENTURY REBELLIONS 53Mostoftherebellions gainst hepoliciesof ocalOttoman dministra-tors merged gainst hisbackground.</p><p>Atthebeginning f theeighteenthentury,hedistricts fJenin, a-blus, andJerusalem eregoverned rom amascus,while the Galileeand coastal regions ame underthe vilayet f Sidon.2Despite the re-forms ttempted y the Ottoman iziers fthe Koprulufamily t theend ofthe eventeenthentury,ocalgovernmentndadministrationntheregion emained asicallyunchanged.The authorities ailed imeand again to ensure ecurity nd stabilityor easants nd citydwell-ers. In Hebron, ornstance,we read of renewedtruggles uring hisperiodbetween heKurds ndTamimisDayris),who enlistedhehelpofpeasantsfrom eighboringillages.3Thegovernors,urists, enior'ulama', nd notables fJerusalemntervenedo settle hedispute ndmakepeace between hewarring actions.Theyweresuccessful ttimes, utonlyfor rief eriods.4The governorsfJerusalem ere unable to establish ecurity, otonly in Hebron and its surrounding ills,but even in ruralareasaroundJerusalemtself.As an example fthekindofproblemhatwascommon, court egisterells fa group fMuslimswho, fter isitingtheAqsaMosque,theDomeoftheRock, nd theresting laceofMusaal-KalimMoses),wereunable toreturn ometo their illages ecausethe nhabitantsfBayt qsa andBayt aqiawere uarrellingverwhichof the twovillageswas to collect heghafar ax.5Fearing andits ndthevillagers rom ayt qsa andBayt aqia,thevisitors skedtheqadishar'i to intercede n theirbehalfand guarantee heir afepassagethroughhe rea. Theqadi didso and theMuslim isitors ere ble toleave,butthebasic problem f"the ackofsecurityn theroads," sthe documents ut t,remained.6The mainroad from erusalem oJaffa as not muchmoresecurethan heroadsfrom erusalemo Nablus and Hebron. At imes hegov-ernors emporarilyucceedednrestoringecuritylongtheroads, utthepricefor uch nitiatives as sometimes igh:whenAql Agha, headministratormutasallim) fLydda,for xample, ed a sortie n hisdistrictgainst edouinbanditsnresponse o ocalcomplaints,eandone of his soldierswerekilled nan ambush,whiletherest f his menwere aken risonerndstrippedftheir ossessions.7Given heover-all lack ofsecurity, any eopledecidednot topaytaxes o thegover-norsand torely n themselvesoprotectheir ives ndproperty.</p><p>In 1701,Muhammad asha KurdBayramwasappointedwali gover-nor)ofJerusalem, ablus,and Gaza and grantedxtensiveowers orestoreecuritynd reestablishuthorityn theregion.He arrived nJerusalemt the head of a largearmy nd doubledtaxes,making tclearthatmoneynotpaidwillingly ouldbe collected yforce.As anindication fhis resolve nd hispower ocarry ut histhreat,hewaliledtwosuccessful ampaigns gainst heBedouin lans thathadtaken</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 Manna-18th and 19th century Rebellions in Palestine</p><p> 5/17</p><p>54 JOURNAL OF PALESTINE STUDIEScontrolftheroads nGaza and thatwere ordingt over he ocal popu-lation. Muhammad ashareturned rom he second campaign n No-vember 701 laden withprisoners nd booty, ncludingwomen, irls,and flocks fsheep.8 Thefollowing ear, hewali aunchednew mili-tary ampaigns gainst ebellious edouins nd peasants n the GazaandJerusalem overnorates,nd returned oJerusalem ith heheadsofeleven ebels,whichhehungover hegatewayso the ity. Over200Bedouins and peasants reestimated o have been killed n the 1702campaign.9ButMuhammad asha'sharsh epression id notbring ecurity ndstabilityo theregion,nd in fact ncreased esistance o his rule. Alargenumber f rebellious edouins ndpeasantsfortifiedhemselvesinthevillage fBaytJibrinndcould onlybe dislodged y thewali andhis army fter ightmonths fsiege. Muhammad asha'sforces aidwaste omany fthevillages hey assed throughnthe ourseoftheserepeated ampaigns.The ulama' and notables fJerusalem, any fwhomwere ustodi-ans ofwaqfproperty ispersed hroughouthe Palestinian ountry-side,10advised thewali throughhe intermediaryf the qadi andMuhammad ffendiarallah,hemuftifJerusalem,odesistfrom ispolicy. When MuhammadPasha persisted, hepeople ofJerusalemrose up. A stateof rebellionwas declared fter ridayprayers t theAqsa Mosque in May 170311 when thewali was awayon one of hismilitaryampaignsntheNablusregionnd had eft nly mutasallimand a few roops ehind. The inhabitantsfJerusalemeized thisop-portunityo attack heprison ndfree heprisoners,henmoved n tothe mutasallim'suartersn thegovernmentouse (saraya) and ar-rested imalongwith ome ofhisguards.12TheJanissariesnd timar(land grant) olders sipahis) oinedtherebels nthecity,whichmadeiteasyfor heJerusalemiteso overcome hemutasallimnd histroops.Peasantsfrom earby illages,who had heard bout the ulama"sap-peal,came ntoJerusalemo takepart ntherebellion. n thisway, hepeople easilytook control f thecity nd set aboutpreparing orcounterattackyMuhammad asha.Oncetherebels ained ontrol fJerusalem,hey ppointedhenaqibal-ashraf, uhammadbnMustafa l-Wafa'il-Husayni,s shaykhndleaderof the city. Theyalso appointed he shaykhs f the variousquarters fJerusalemo help thenaqibadministerhecity's ffairs,thusbeginning period f elf-rulehatastedfor ver woyears, earlyuntil he endof 1705. During hisperiod,Muhammad asha and thewalisofDamascusmade several ainattemptsoregain erusalem,utthe rebels uccessfullyookadvantage f thesanctityftheholy cityand itsfortifications,losing hecity ates ndreturningirewheneverthe statearmiesapproached.The following ocument emonstrates</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 Manna-18th and 19th century Rebellions in Palestine</p><p> 6/17</p><p>18TH AND 19TH CENTURY REBELLIONS 55the nthusiasm fthepeople ndefendinghemselvesnd their olidar-ity t that rucial uncture:</p><p>On the date recorded elow, there ame to theaugustmajlisal-shari'a all the renownedulama',noble shaykhs nd grand mams,the ipahis, hecommander f thefort, heJanissaries,nd thenota-bles of thevilayet nd all the ubjects, anissaries,nhabitantsf thequarters f thecity, nd the entire opulation fJerusalem.Andthey nterednto common ccord,ngoodfaithnd withoutreservation,hat ll the nhabitantsfJerusalemhallbe ofone mindas to what the hari'arequires,nd that hey houldsuccorone an-other ccordingothetrue hari'a:Ifbrigandshouldattack Jerusalemiter a group fthem, nd ifthey hould try o killhim outside hecity,n an orchard r village,and ifhe should atisfy imselfhat heywere ut to killhim, nd ifhe should thendefendhimself nd fight hem, illing ne of theirnumber o fend ff heattack, hediya blood money, r compensa-tion o thefamilyfthedeceased] hallbe divided mong ll thepeo-ple ofJerusalem, uslims nddhimmisChristiansndJews] like.Ifbrigands houldattack Jerusalemite,nd ifthe nhabitants fJerusalem,earning fthis, houldrush o fend ff he ttack gainsthimby attacking he brigands, nd ifa Jerusalemitehouldfiremusket r similar ontrivance,ittingneofthe ttackers,ndifthefamilyf thismanshoulddemandpaymentf a diya, he said diyashall be paid byall thepeopleofJerusalem,ot ust the man whofired he musket.Ifa Jerusalemitehould discover thief rbrigandnhis home atnight,nd ifhe shouldstrike nd kill him n order o ward off heattack nhimself,henhisdiya hallalso be divided mong hepeo-ple ofJerusalem.Ifbrigandshould ttack ndkill Jerusalemite,hepeopleofJeru-salemshall ask forhisdiyato be paid,and they hallexact the duereparationsnd remediesn fullmeasure.The aboveaccordhas been enteredntobycommon onsent.</p><p>Recorded n thethird fMuharram,115 [19 May1703].13Whilethe nhabitants ere ongsuccessfulnrepellinghe tate's t-temptsoquelltherebellion,olidarity, hichwas theessential ondi-tion for success,was underminedwithtime. Personaldifferencesrose,as wellas differencesfprinciple,or nstance nthe manner n whichthe and was to beadministerednd theform ftherelation-ship withtheOttoman uthorities. hecostsoftherebelliongainst he tate oseas theuprising ragged n. Thestipendsthat heJanissariesnd thesipahis cavalry) nd the ulama'used toreceive romstanbulwere utoff.Businessdriedup for hemerchantsbecause of thesecurity ituation,he unsaferoads,and the fact hatpilgrims ad stopped omingnto heholy ity nd tsenvirons.Underthesecircumstances,ncreasing umberswantedto acceptthe offer</p><p>While the nhabitants erelong successfulnrepellingthestate's ttemptsoquelltherebellion,olidarity asundermined ith ime.</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 Manna-18th and 19th century Rebellions in Palestine</p><p> 7/17</p><p>56 JOURNAL OF PALESTINE STUDIESmadebytheOttomanuthoritieso dismiss hewali,believing hat hiswould be a sufficientchievementor herebellion.Butanother action, eadedby thenaqib l-ashraf,was distrustfulfOttoman romisesnotbackedby adequate guaranteesnd wanted ocontinue herebellion.Thusthepopulationwas split, nd differencesofopiniongrew ntobloody lashesbetween henaqib l-ashrafnd hisfollowersn theone hand, ndtheopposition, hichwas gainingwidesupport rom hepopulation, n the ther.14 t was atthis uncture,n1705, thatthe Ottoman uthorities, ho had encouraged he opposi-tion,felt he timewas ripe for new militaryampaign o quell therebellion.The Ottomanforcemade slow progress romDamascus, meetingresistance rom hepeople oftheNablus district hoharried t alongtheway,but to ittle ffect.Meanwhile, he rmed lashesbetween henaqib's men and theiropponentswere raging nside theJerusalemwalls.As theOttoman orce eached heoutskirtsfthecity,henaqiband his men realized heywerefighting losingbattle nd decided towithdraw efore heywerecutoff.Theyretreatedhrough he Amud(Damascus) gateand theMagharibah ate on thenight f28 October1705, eaving hecityn thehands of thegroupfavoringeconciliationwith heOttomans.5Thus,when the Ottomanrmy rrived fewdays ater, hegatesofthe citywereopen,and it enteredwithout struggle. husended therebellion fthenaqib l-ashraf,nd therestorationfOttoman uthor-ityand Ottoman dministrationegan. This includedpursuing nd...</p></li></ul>