rebellions of 1837 upper & lower canada. upper canada
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Rebellions of 1837Upper & Lower Canada
Upper Canada - problemsThe way the colony was governed (appointed rather than elected)Land unfair way the land was granted (best land given to family compact & Clergy often left uncleared & undeveloped)Transportation roads were inadequate. Money was spent on canal building (which benefited the merchants Family Compact)
Upper CanadaFamily CompactElite, powerful peopleLoyalist descentGave themselves & friends favours (jobs, land, contracts)Believed power should be in the hands of a few capable people
Land ConcessionsCLERGYGovernment land reserveScattered non-farming land stops progress. They are left treed and undeveloped.
Farmers Upper CanadaIt seemed to farmers that the govt granted money to everyone but them.Impossible to borrow $ to improve land or buy farm tools
Bankers and merchants grew richer while farmers stuggled.
ReformersOpposed the power of the Family CompactWanted changes in GovernmentModerates (like Robert Baldwin)Radicals (William Lyon Mackenzie)
What Happened?The rebellion failed.
Rebels (more than 1000) were forced to march to Toronto and placed in unheated jails with little food. Many died.Those who followed orders went free2 ringleaders were hangedMany transported to Bermuda/AustraliaMackenzie flees to the US
Lower CanadaLower Canada
Lower Canada - ProblemsFarmers were against building canals and harbours that would benefit merchantsEnglish ImmigrantsThe English dominated the government
Chateau CliqueSmall group of powerful business peopleBritish backgroundBelieved they should hold all the powerWanted the Church to stay powerfulWanted more English speaking settlers in the colony
Parti CanadienWanted French ways to remainLeader Louis Joseph Papineau
What Happened?The rebellion failed.Colony was under martial lawElected assemblies disappeared for 3 years12 rebels were hanged58 sent in chains to AustraliaPapineau & others fled to U.S. under threat of execution.
The Aftermath of the Rebellionsmovie
AssignmentImagine you are a son of one of the leaders of the 1837-1838 rebellion who was to be hanged for his part in the uprising. Write a letter to Chief Justice Robinson expressing your feelings and reasons why he should grant clemency (mercy)Imagine you are Chief Justice Robinson. Write a reply to the sons letter. Your letter can show compassion, but remember Robinsons job is to uphold the law. Robinson is also a member of the Family Compact and treason is punishable by death.