Rebellion and Change: Upper Canada Trouble in Upper Canada.

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Slide 1 Rebellion and Change: Upper Canada Trouble in Upper Canada Slide 2 Slide 3 Upper Canada Slide 4 Cause of Discontent A. How the Colony Was Governed 1. In 1825 BNA was six colonies and two territories 2. Each had elected Assembly that prepared Bills 3. Bills needed approval from governor and councils before laws enacted Government House at York, Upper Canada, home of several lieutenant-governors after the 1820s Slide 5 B. Family Compact 1. small clique of wealthy, powerful men who controlled Upper Canada 2. controlled government, monopolized political offices, influenced banking, land grants, education, courts, Anglican church Reverend John Strachan b. Aberdeen, Scotland, 1778; d. 1867 Slide 6 C. Farmers It seemed to farmers that the govt granted money to everyone but them. Impossible to borrow $ to improve land or buy farm tools Bankers and merchants grew richer while farmers stuggled. Slide 7 D. Upper Canada - Problems 1. The way the colony was governed (appointed rather than elected) 2. Land unfair way the land was granted (best land given to family compact & Clergy often left un-cleared & undeveloped) 3. Transportation roads were inadequate. Money was spent on canal building (which benefited the merchants Family Compact) Slide 8 Land Issues in Upper Canada Self Notes: Part 2 Many Aboriginals moved off to reserves (Francis Bond Head) Best land granted to members of Family Compactoften hundreds of acres of beautiful water front property Less than 10% of land in farm production Best farmland in hands of non-farmers Speculating on land prices going up Clergy Reserves also upset farmers Anglican Church given huge tracts of prime land Often left undeveloped and new settlers left with poor land Slide 9 Land Concessions Land Concessions CLERGYGovernment land reserve Scattered non-farming land stops progress. They are left treed and undeveloped. Slide 10 Transportation Issues Road conditions poor and impassable couldnt move farmers goods to markets Govt spent money on canal building instead Benefited Family Compact and business friends Private businesses granted huge loans to build Welland Canal Slide 11 Who Were the Tories and Moderate Reformers? Tories Friends and supporters of the Family Compact Known as Conservatives or Tories Wanted to conserve existing form of government Approved Britains way of governing colonies Members of Legislative Council and Executive Council always chosen from this group Moderate Reformers Reformers wanted to change system of government Wanted to attack the problem through legal means Supported Responsible Government Often influential people, well educated and Anglican Never wanted to break away from Britain Sought governor to select Executive Council from Legislative Assembly Slide 12 Who Were the Radical Reformers? Wanted change immediatelyincluding though violence Many were restless moderate reformers William Lyon Mackenzie urged independence from Britain Hoped for empowered Legislative Assembly In late 1837, Mackenzie made a call to arms Slide 13 F. Rebellion In Upper Canada 1. During December 1837, a rebellion raged in Upper Canada 2. Sought political and social changes Slide 14 G. What Happened? The rebellion failed. Rebels (more than 1000) were forced to march to Toronto and placed in unheated jails with little food. Many died. Those who followed orders went free 2 ringleaders were hanged Many transported to Bermuda/Australia Mackenzie flees to the US Slide 15 The Aftermath of the Rebellions movie movie