Medieval Literature From the fall of Rome to the Renaissance.

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  • Slide 1
  • Medieval Literature From the fall of Rome to the Renaissance
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  • English & French Literature Dominated by: Dominated by: The epic Beowulf The romance Song of Roland (early) Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (late) The allegory The Canterbury Tales The Divine Comedy The folk tale The lyric The drama Everyman
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  • EARLY BRITISH MEDIEVAL LITERATURE 499-1066 CE
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  • The Anglo-Saxons: 4491066 300s B.C. Celts in Britain 55 B.CA.D.409 Roman Occupation A.D. 449 Anglo-Saxon Invasion A.D. 400699 Spread of Christianity A.D. 1066 Norman Invasion A.D.878 King Alfred against the Danes A.D. 600 A.D. 300 A.D. 1 300 B.C. A.D. 900 A.D. 1200
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  • Britain Before and during the 4th century B.C. Celtic religion a form of animism Stonehenge Druids were Celtic priests Britain named for one Celtic tribethe Brythons Britain home to several Celtic tribes
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  • The Roman Occupation 55 B.C. Hadrians Wall Romans evacuate their troops Central government breaks down Julius Caesar invades Britain Celts defeated by Claudius A.D.43 Romans build walls, villas, baths, roads Roman ruins Britain left vulnerable to attack A.D. 409
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  • The Anglo-Saxon Invasion A.D. 449 The Anglo-Saxons push the Celts into the far west of the country. Angles Saxons Jutes Celts
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  • The Anglo-Saxon Invasion Anglo-Saxon Society kinship groups led by strong warrior chief people farmed, established local governments, produced fine craftwork English emerged as a written language
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  • The Anglo-Saxon religion offered no hope of an afterlife valued earthly virtues of bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship similar to what we call Norse mythology ThunorThor WodenOdin Day of weekAnglo-Saxon godNorse god Wednesday Thursday The Anglo-Saxon Invasion
  • Slide 11
  • Anglo-Saxons did not believe in afterlife warriors gained immortality through songs Why were the scops important? The Anglo-Saxon bards called scops Anglo-Saxon harp strummed harp as they sang sang of heroic deeds were often warriors The Anglo-Saxon Invasion
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  • Christianity and Anglo- Saxon culture co-exist The Spread of Christianity Christian monks settle in Britain British pagan religions replaced by Christianity Around A.D. 400 By A.D. 699
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  • Early Literature Celtic and Germanic Tribes Celtic and Germanic Tribes heroic legends Written down by monks hundreds of years later. Written down by monks hundreds of years later. What effect will this have on pagan epics?
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  • Old, Middle, Modern English Old English 'Fder ure ue eart on heofonum si in nama gehalgod tobecume in rice gewure in willa on eoran swa swa on heofonum urne gedghwamlican hlaf syle us to dg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfa urum gyltendum and ne geld u us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele solice.' 'Fder ure ue eart on heofonum si in nama gehalgod tobecume in rice gewure in willa on eoran swa swa on heofonum urne gedghwamlican hlaf syle us to dg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfa urum gyltendum and ne geld u us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele solice.' Middle English 'Oure fadir at art in heuenes halwid be i name; i reume or kyngdom come to be. Be i wille don in here as it is dounin heuene. yeue to us today oure eche dayes bred. And foryeue to us oure dettis at is oure synnys as we foryeuen to oure dettouris at is to men at han synned in us. And lede us not into temptacion but delyuere us from euyl.' 'Oure fadir at art in heuenes halwid be i name; i reume or kyngdom come to be. Be i wille don in here as it is dounin heuene. yeue to us today oure eche dayes bred. And foryeue to us oure dettis at is oure synnys as we foryeuen to oure dettouris at is to men at han synned in us. And lede us not into temptacion but delyuere us from euyl.' 'Our father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts as we forgive our debters. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.' http://bitterscroll.podomatic.com/entry/2006-08-09T16_02_07- 07_00
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  • Old English The Germanic Tribe The Germanic Tribe Spoken on the British Isles Spoken on the British Isles Anglo-Saxons specifically
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  • Beowulf Germanic traditional epic Germanic traditional epic Specifically Anglo-Saxon Warring culture 3,000 line epic poem 3,000 line epic poem First literary composition in the English Language First literary composition in the English Language Composed sometime between 600-900 C.E. 700 is our best guess. Composed sometime between 600-900 C.E. 700 is our best guess. Written down 200-300 years later. Written down 200-300 years later.
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  • History of the text Poem exists in one manuscript only (in British Library) Poem exists in one manuscript only (in British Library) Survived fire in 18 th century Survived fire in 18 th century This scare led to the copying, editing, translating of the copy This scare led to the copying, editing, translating of the copy Now an integral part of the canon. Now an integral part of the canon. A group of the most important literature of any given time period, genre, author, etc.
  • Slide 18
  • Beowulf Poem written in England Poem written in England Set in Scandinavia Follows the Scandinavian prince, Beowulf. Follows the Scandinavian prince, Beowulf. Poem has three major plots Poem has three major plots 1.Beowulf, a warrior for the Geats, crosses the sea to help the Danes kill the man-eating monster Grendel. He must also kill Grendels mother 2.Beowulf returns and rules for fifty years as king. A dragon terrorizes the country and Beowulf must confront it. 3.Beowulf slays the dragon but meets his own death. He enters the legend of his people as a hero.
  • Slide 19
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  • Beowulf Poem shows life in the Dark Ages. Poem shows life in the Dark Ages. Begins with soldiers in a hall, drinking mead Grendel eats them all. Yum. Grendel is the spawn of Cain, the murderous brother in the Old Testament. Grendel is the spawn of Cain, the murderous brother in the Old Testament.
  • Slide 21
  • Chainmail
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  • Beowulf assignment Assignment on page 2 of Medieval Lit packet Assignment on page 2 of Medieval Lit packet Take a look at this now Excerpts begin on page 3 Excerpts begin on page 3 Read academically and carefully Read academically and carefully Take notes or annotate Take notes or annotate Notes can be used on quiz, annotations cannot Due Monday Due Monday If youre absent Monday (or today, I guess) you will turn in typed answers to these questions upon return.
  • Slide 23
  • From Epic to Romance The Epic yielded to Romance in 11 th and 12 th centuries The Epic yielded to Romance in 11 th and 12 th centuries Originally applied to Old French to distinguish from Latin Originally applied to Old French to distinguish from Latin Eventually, it referred to any work in French.
  • Slide 24
  • Romance Narrative shift Narrative shift from warfare to love. Courtly love Courtly love A tradition that idealized women and turned conventions of human love almost literally into religion. First developed by troubadours lyric entertainers Originally half-facetious elaborate code to follow
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  • Romance Earlier Romances, chansons de geste (Songs of Deeds), like Roland, are men-at-war. Earlier Romances, chansons de geste (Songs of Deeds), like Roland, are men-at-war. The central figure: Charlemagne and members of his court. Basis in historical fact a towering figure in the development of Western and Christian culture. However, they have poetic legend, as, for instance, Charlemagne is in intimate touch with the Angels.
  • Slide 26
  • Song of Roland
  • Slide 27
  • Background Written in Old French circa 1100 Written in Old French circa 1100 Composed 300 years earlier Oral songs sung by troubadours accompanied by lyres. Song of Roland Song of Roland earliest and best known example of the Song of Deed romance. History of text (FYI) History of text (FYI) Unknown until 1832 when the first of several manuscripts was discovered. The best of these is at Oxford University that is a copy by an Anglo-Norman scribe of an earlier version. Many conspiracies and hypotheses about the organ, poet, and facts of Roland
  • Slide 28
  • Background Written at the beginning of the Crusades. Written at the beginning of the Crusades. By telling a story of the Great Charlemagne, the hope is to inspire current fighters. The values of the poem are simply identified. The values of the poem are simply identified. Exclusively deal with war and religion Success in battle is vital personal reasons prove God is on your side Christians are good, Saracens (Muslims) are evil Christians are good, Saracens (Muslims) are evil although some are great warriors and honorable Absent are: Absent are: philosophical subtleties inward conflicts
  • Slide 29
  • Song of Roland plot Based on the ambush of Charlemagne's rear guard in 778. Based on the ambush of Charlemagne's rear guard in 778. Charlemagnes nephew Roland ambushed as they returned from an expedition against the Muslims in Spain. Charlemagnes nephew Roland ambushed as they returned from an expedition against the Muslims in Spain. Brings to life aspects of early medieval culture: Brings to life aspects of early medieval culture: naming one's battle gear and weapons, dependence on cavalry glorification of blood-and-thunder heroism and strong sense of companionship between brothers-at-arms.
  • Slide 30
  • Structure of poem Very un-poetic: Very un-poetic: Simple vocabulary & syntax. No Figurative language No atmospheric details Poet is on the side of the Christians, but he doesn't gush like in Beowulf.
  • Slide 31
  • Structure of poem Hyperbolic praise of the past Hyperbolic praise of the past Heroes of old Heroes of old Appearance of prophetic dreams and omens Appearance of prophetic dreams and omens Intervention at key moments of supernatural beings Intervention at key moments of supernatural beings Epithets Epithets Battles Battles
  • Slide 32
  • Courtly Love History of Arthurian Legend and Courtly Love
  • Slide 33
  • Courtly Love Extramarital Extramarital very secretive The knight (whom did the loving) prone to: The knight (whom did the loving) prone to: fits of weeping Growing pale Languishing in his unrequited love Lady of noble birth Lady of noble birth Knight performed great deeds gain his ladys admiration from afar Faithfulness was eternal Faithfulness was eternal
  • Slide 34
  • Courtly Love (dont write down) Chretien de Troyes applied these rules into legendary tales including: Chretien de Troyes applied these rules into legendary tales including: Eric and Enide The Knight of the Cart The Knight with the Lion The Story of the Grail These stories combined with other romances to form a foundation for courtly love including: These stories combined with other romances to form a foundation for courtly love including: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Havelok the Dane
  • Slide 35
  • King Arthur The Arthurian Legend is a compilation of stories and romances The Arthurian Legend is a compilation of stories and romances Arthurs birth his adventures as knight adulterous love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere Epic Poetry Courtly Love or The Romance Arthurian Legend
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  • King Arthur Gains fame in the 1100s Gains fame in the 1100s Chretien de Troyes takes the oral legends he has heard, mixes them with courtly love ideas and writes the first five romances of adventure in the 12 th century Chretien de Troyes takes the oral legends he has heard, mixes them with courtly love ideas and writes the first five romances of adventure in the 12 th century Stories culminate in the 15 th century Stories culminate in the 15 th century Alfred Loydd Tennyson Idylls of the of the King Alfred Loydd Tennyson Idylls of the of the King Mark Twain with A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court. Mark Twain with A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court.
  • Slide 37
  • Romance Church began to see Romance, specifically Courtly Love, as a threat Church began to see Romance, specifically Courtly Love, as a threat Sir Gaiwan and the Green Knight Romance of the Rose
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  • Late Middle Ages The Church took over power The Church took over power based on two propositions: Kingdom of God vs Kingdom of the Devil only through the offices of the church Earth is proving ground for Heaven Earth is proving ground for Heaven The literature reflected this conflict. The literature reflected this conflict. Nearly all literature was religious in theme.
  • Slide 39
  • On the Misery of the Human Condition Sermon written by Pope Innocent III ~1200 Book 2 page 96
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  • Medieval Drama In courtyards In courtyards Layman actors Layman actors Three types: Three types: Mystery play Biblical history from fall of Lucifer to Last Judgement Miracle play Stories of life of Christ, Mary, or saints Morality Play Struggle of good and evil and souls afterlife. Allegorical
  • Slide 45
  • Everyman
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  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vM5Z wd427iU&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vM5Z wd427iU&feature=related
  • Slide 47
  • Middle English More recognizable to modern reader. More recognizable to modern reader. Middle Class rises Middle Class rises Feudalism weakens Canterbury Tales
  • Slide 48
  • The General Prologue Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his half cours yronne, And smale foweles maken melodye, That slepen al the nyght with open ye (So priketh hem Nature in hir corages), Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes, To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; And specially from every shires ende Of Engelond to Caunterbury they wende, The hooly blisful martir for to seke, That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke. Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote The droghte of March hath perced to the roo...

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