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Medieval to Renaissance. A musical history synopsis. Medieval Music. Fall of Rome-1400 Notation: Originally no notation, transmitted orally, later 4 staff with neumes Modes=Scales - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Medieval to Renaissance

Medieval to RenaissanceA musical history synopsisMedieval MusicFall of Rome-1400Notation: Originally no notation, transmitted orally, later 4 staff with neumesModes=Scales 8 Church modes : Dorian, hypodorian, Phrygian, hypophrygian, Lydian, mixolydian, hypolydian, and HypomixolydianFemales not used in playing or singing outside of the Abbeys as it was considered improper for women to perform or take part in the church service.Sacred and Secular

Gregorian ChantNamed for Pope Gregory I who is credited with writing down the composition treatise on chant Monophonic Hildegard von Bingen11th century NunFirst important female composerGregorian Chanthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kK5AohCMX0U Hildegard von BingenOrganumPlainchantHeterophonic-melody line with accompanying harmonic line set at a fixed interval OrganumMotetLitergical or secular Often dealing with courtly loveEarly Polyphonic music MotetMadrigalsItalian secularpolyphonic musicmore sophisticated than Motets because of fluidity of melody linesMadrigalGuido de Arezzo11th century MonkCredited with adding staff lines to musical notationDeveloped the Guidonian Hand which was used to help people remember the church modes and supposedly be able to sight read the music better or compose correctlyThe Guidonian Hand

GoliardsItinerate song/dance troupesWrote and sang in Latin, but songs are mostly secularLittle music survives, but much poetry

Carmina BuranaTroubadours/trouveresWandering poetsMusic dealt with courtly love, war, chivalry Spoke and sang a Medieval French dialect, Probably accompanied on instrumentsTroubadours/trouveresChansonFrench Polyphonic, secular music

Guillaume de MachautRenaissance Music1400-1600Reliance on the interval of the Third (Previously thought of as a dissonance)Still Modal (rather than tonal, emphasis on the Fifth)Richer Texture with four or more parts (more polyphony)Blending rather than contrasting melodic texturesUse of larger ensembles that spanned the vocal rangeGreater emphasis on HarmonyNotation: 5 staff lines, no bar lines, no scores, Accidentals not always noted1470s: Music started to be printed on a press, brought music to a greater audience1500s: Music and art began to imitate each other in detail and complexity, sacred music began to become more complex, canons became popular, the beginnings of opera

Art Comparison

Two Important Sacred MassesCantus Firmus-one melody line that is repeated throughoutParody Mass-Takes parts or all of its voicing from a pre-existing work such as a motet or a secular chanson

Palestrinas Great SaveNear the end of the Renaissance, the Church began to get upset at the way music was being written, such as in the case of the parody massSt. Charles Borromeo (Archbishop of Milan) collected all the church music and determined what was good and what was badThe bad totaled over 1500 works.Palestrina stepped in and convinced Borromeo not to destroy all the music, that those written properly should be saved and new music should be composed along those lines.The rules were compiled by the Council of Trent

Guillaume Du Fay15th Century, Franco-FlemishMusic was widely distributed and influenced many later composers even though he lived before the printing pressWrote masses,motets and chansonsAlso wrote many settings of chants using fauxbourdon (false bass) to create parallel harmonyMay have been the inventor of Fauxbourdon

Guillaume Du FayJohannes Ockeghem15th century, Franco-FlemishNot as prolific as you would expect given the length of his careerMost of early masses written in cantus firmusLater important masses written in a style similar to the later parody massAlso wrote motets and secular chansons

Johannes Ockeghem

Johannes OckeghemJosquin des Prez15th century/early 16th century,Franco-FlemishConsidered to be the greatest composer of his timeWrote sacred and secular pieces such as Masses, Motets, chansonsworked in Milan, Rome, and France/BelguimOne of the first to employ the use of motifs in compositions to foster unity within a workWrote masses in Cantus Firmus, paraphrase masses (similar to cantus firmus, but more ornamented)Parody masses, along with other mass styles of the daywrote in a new style of sacred music called the Motet-Chanson which combined the form of a Chanson with the addition of chant based cantus firmus in the bass

Josquin des PrezMusical InstrumentsBrassTrumpet: One version used a slide like a trombone, others were straight trumpets without valves, used mainly in the military and for Royalty Cornett: Made of wood, but played like a trumpet, the largest is called the serpent and was said to be the closest to the human voice Sackbut: Like a trombone, only used in sacred music

CornettSackbutMusical InstrumentsWoodwindsShawm: Double Reed, seven finger holes and a thumb hole, mostly used with drums in street musicTransverse flute: Wooden, forerunner of modern flute Recorder: Still commonly used, used in consorts in the renaissance

ShawmRecorder ConsortMusical InstrumentsStringsViol da Gamba: Played between the legs regardless of size, forerunner of the modern violin familyHudy Gurdy: Mechanical, used in street music Harp: Small 22-44 strings, sat on players lapLute: Strings set in courses of two strings with highest string being single typically 8 courses or 15 strings

Viol da GambaHurdy GurdyJohn DowlandBritish lute player of the late RenaissanceBest known for sad sounding songsWas extremely popular and would sign autographs Dowland sempre dolens (Dowland always sad)Flow My TearsModern Lute

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