medieval europe: moving towards renaissance

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Medieval Europe: Moving Towards Renaissance. Medieval Universities. By the 1100s, schools had arisen around the great cathedrals to train clergy Quickly became a status symbol for European cities Women were not allowed to attend university - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Medieval Europe: Moving Towards Renaissance

Medieval Europe: Moving Towards RenaissanceMedieval UniversitiesBy the 1100s, schools had arisen around the great cathedrals to train clergyQuickly became a status symbol for European citiesWomen were not allowed to attend universityKnowledge of classical Greece, which had been preserved by Muslim scholars, returned to Europe during Crusades

University Life6 days a week5 AM: attend prayers5 10 AM: attend classeslessons were in Latin, students sat for hours on hard wooden benches, expected to memorize what they heard, students paid teacher for each class10 AM: first meal of day11 AM 5 PM: attend classes5 PM: last meal of dayafter dinner, studied until bedall exams were oral

A Medieval Classroom

St. Thomas AquinasAquinas used logic and reason to defend Christian teachings united Christian faith with Greek philosophy to argue that God rules over an orderly universe and that the laws of nature prove intelligent designMarks the return of logic and reason to European thinking and a move away from emotional superstition

Science and MathLittle truly European development, but returning Crusaders brought back: Arabic numbers which replaced outdated Roman numeralsScientific knowledge of the classical Greeks + the scientific achievements of Islamic scholars (like algebra)

Medieval LiteratureHeroic epicsFrances Song of RolandSpains Cantar de Mio CidDantes Divine Comedy, including its most famous book, The Inferno (from Italy)Chaucers Canterbury Tales (from England)

Gothic CathedralsMassive churches which major cities constructed as a sign of their wealthDefining features:flying buttresses (to carry weight of stone)stained glass windows, bas relief door panels (to illustrate Bible stories for the illiterate)built in the shape of a crossgargoyles (scared away evil spirits, helped with water drainage from roof)

Notre Dame Cathedral

The Black DeathPlague began in China, killing 35 million therePlague spread across Asia, carried by fleas on Mongol caravans, killing millions more at a rate of about 7000 per dayRats carrying plague arrived in Italy via merchant ships in 1347By 1348, plague had spread from Italy to Spain and France; over the next few years it reached all corners of Europe

Plague & The Silk Roads

Consequences of PlagueCaused a collapse of social systemsmany lost faith in the Churchmany blamed the Jews, deepening religious persecutionmany abandoned their families to flee plaguetoo many workers died, damaging the economyAs many as 50% of Europeans may have died

A Weakened ChurchPapal seat had been moved to Avignon, FranceThe French popes were largely corrupt and favored French interestsAngered, some bishops elected a new pope in Rome in 1378; until 1417 there were two popes, each claiming authority over the Catholic ChurchEventually the Papal seat returned to Rome, but power of the pope had been badly damaged by the infighting

The Hundred Years War1337-1453 (really, thats 116 years)Fought mainly between England and France in French territoryFirst European war to see the use of guns and cannons thanks to introduction of Chinese gunpowder

Joan of ArcIn 1429, 17 year old Joan of Arc (a girl) convinced King Charles VII of France that God had sent her a vision telling her to lead his army to victoryShe led French to numerous victories for the next year, but then was captured by the English and burned at the stake for witchcraftThe angry French considered Joan a martyr (someone who dies for their beliefs) and rallied to drive the English out of France

Consequences of WarTemporarily broke English power and allowed France to dominate EuropeCannons made knights and castles obsolete because they could not stand up to themSince knights no longer afforded protection to the serfs from cannons, the feudal system in Europe began to fail

Fall of Constantinople (tpenny)Constantinople was capital of Eastern Roman Catholic Church (Greek Speaking)Current day-Istanbul, TurkeyCaptured by Ottoman Turks (Muslim)7 week siege April- May 1453Several Greeks and non-Greeks fled capital; went to Italy; brought more classical Greek knowledge lost or forgotten during Dark AgesMarks the end of the Roman Empire and to some historians the end of the Middle Ages