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- 1.MEDIEVAL - RENAISSANCE During the Middle Ages, musical texture was monophonic, meaning ithas a single melodic line. Sacred vocal music such as Gregorianchants were set to Latin text and sung unaccompanied. It was theonly type of music allowed in churches, so composers kept themelodies pure and simple. Later on, church choirs added one or moremelodic lines to the Gregorian chants. This created polyphonictexture, meaning it has two or more melodic lines.
2. MEDIEVAL - RENAISSANCE During the Renaissance, the shell harmony of the Middle Ages wassucceeded by true harmony. Medieval and Renaissance music was based mainly on theeight church modes. This use of the term mode is atypical, however:the church modes are actually just seven-note scales. The churchmodes were developed to help composers write smooth monophonicmelodies. While they served this purpose admirably, the churchmodes are awkward when it comes to composing harmony. 3. Differences BetweenMedieval And RenaissanceMedievalRenaissance Dry Shell harmony Monophony > > Sweet TruePolyphony harmony Portions ofscripture were set Revival ofto traditional classical cultureRoman melodies. 4. GUIDO DAREZZO 5. GUIDO D AREZZO Italian musicologist, who was one of the first important musicteachers and theorists. He was also known as Guido Aretinus, Fra Guittone, A guy of aArezzo, born in Arezzo. His most famous innovation consisted in applying syllablesut, re, mi, fa, sol, la to the first six notes of diatomic scales, startingat any pitch desired. 6. GUIDO D AREZZO Guidos most famous treatise is his Micrologus Guidonis dedisciplina artis musical, dedicated to Bishop Theobald of Arezzo Died probably at Pampos Abbey, near Ferrara 7. GUILLAUME DEMACHAUT 8. GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT French court poet and musician. Born at Machaut in Champagne and died of Reims at April 1377 Served king John the Bohemia, John the Good of France andCharles III of Navarre. He was an initiator of new art of poetry in fixed form popular inthe Middle Ages of which the ballad and the rondeau were themost important. 9. GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT He was more of a writer but composed musical compositions. Musical compositions include lais, motets, ballads, rondeau anda mass sung of the Charles V. 10. JOSQUINDESPREZ 11. JOSQUIN DESPREZ His name is read as Zhuhs Kan/Zhaws Kan Duh Pray/Day Pray Born in North France but lived in Italy for many years. Was a singer at Milan Cathedral and at the Papal Chapel inRome. Served the dukes of Milan and Ferrara. Died on August 27, 1521 and after his death, his music waslong neglected, but it is widely admired today. 12. JOSQUIN DESPREZ One of the greatest composers of the Renaissance Period. He has been highly praised for his ability to express words throughmusic. He was known for his command of musical techniques, especiallyhis skilful use of the canon, a musical device in which the melody isrepeated in one or more other parts. He usually wrote music for 4voices. He had many of his pieces are love songs. 13. JOSQUIN DESPREZ For Church: he wrote about 100 unaccompanied choral worksknown as MOTES and 18 masses. In 1502, several of the earliest books of printed music weredevoted to his works. 14. POPEGREGORY I 15. POPE GREGORY I ( T H E G R E A T ) Pope, Saint and Doctor of the Church. Set standards for the church ceremony that brought the chantinto popular use which then fixed the GREGORIAN CHANT. Italian composer Ottorino Respighi composed a piecenamed St. Gregory the Great (San Gregorio Magno) that featuresas the fourth and final part of hisChurch Windows (Vetrate diChiesa) works, written in 1925. 16. GREGORIAN 17. GREGORIAN "Gregorian" chant was named for and credited to Pope Gregory I(r. 590-604) is an accident of politics and spin doctoring. Type of liturgical chant most widely used in Latin Churches. To be distinguished from the chants used by the Ambrosian,Mozarabre and other rites. Took definite from after some centuries of development afterPope Gregory I set the standards of chant. 18. TROUBADOURS 19. TROUBADOURS Was one of a large group of poet-musicians who flourished inSouthern France. The word comes from the Latin Tropare (to compose) He composed poetry in a romance language called Provenal. Canso D Amor ( love song) was one of the rich and varied poeticforms used by the troubadours 20. TROUBADOURS The troubadours praise of physical love stood in directcontrast to traditional Christian morality Their ideal of love and praise of women influenced manywriters, including Dante and Petrarch 21. TROUVRES 22. TROUVRES Was one of the group of poet musicians The word comes from an old French word meaning to compose They composed their poems in old French dialect called langue d oil They were strongly influenced by the style and subject matter of thetroubadours of southern France Like the troubadours, the trouvres wrote chansons d amore (lovesongs) 23. MADRIGALS Luca Marenzio, a highly influential composer of madrigals in the last two decades of the 16th century 24. MADRIGALS Short lyric poem of Italian Origin.- deals with love or pastoral subjects.- consists on 2/3 tercets (group of 3 lines) and spread to England. Became popular in Italy (15th century) and spread to England. In the Elizabethan times were meant for singing. Ex: Crabbed Age and Youth (Shakespeares the Passionate Pilgrim ) 25. MADRIGALS From 2 to 6 unaccompanied voices joined in singing theMadrigals. Words and melody frequently are inter women so intically thatthe lines are difficult to follow. Ex: Brightly Dawns Our Wedding Day (The Mikado) 26. MINSTRELS 27. MINSTRELS Well educated poets and musicians. Composed and sang songs of love, heroic deeds- lute, harp/a stingedinstrument. In the sense, the Troubadours and the Trouvers were minstrels. Some are not educated and skilled, wandered about the country,centring at fairs at inns/the streets. Middle ages: term Minstrel was applied to wandering acrobats andjugglers. 28. CHANSONS 29. CHANSONS Any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular. A singer specialising in chansons is known as a "chanteur" (male) or"chanteuse" (female); a collection of chansons, especially from the lateMiddle Ages and Renaissance, is also known as a chansonnier. The art Chanson at Medieval Age and Renaissance may be traced as farback as the 11th and 12th centuries, to the Provencal songs of thetroubadours. 30. CHANSONS From these developed a polyphonic songs from that emerged in the15th century and reached its height in the 16th century. The development of the 15th and 16th century Chansons may bedivided into 5 stylistics sub periods: 1390-1450= English and Early Burgundian Chanson. Composed for solo voice with instrumental accompaniment. The chief composers of the period were John Dunstable, Guillaume Dufay, andGilles Binchois, whose works have elegance, beauty and refinement. 31. CHANSONS 1450-1480 = The Early Parisian Chansons, many of which originated inBurgundy. Phillipe Caron and Johannes Ockeghem--> outstanding composers whichwere similar in form and style to those of the previous era. 1480-1505 = Odhecaton, from the collection of songs published in 1501. Were written for from 3-5 voices without accompaniment. Leading composers included Josquin Depies, Heinrich Isaac, and JacobObrecht. 32. CHANSONS 1505-1549= Were strongly influenced by 2 Italian forms, the FRONTALand the MADRIGAL (were written for from 3-5 voices and werefrequently homophonic in style). This movement away from pure polyphony in Chanson was led suchcomposers as Nicolas Gombert and Jean Mouton. The composition of the new Chanson coincide with the rise of the music-printing industry, and they were the 1st to be widely available. 33. CHANSONS 1549-1603= Era of HUMANIST and the Chanson VERSMESURES(measured verse) was the chief form. The rhythm of the music followed the metrical pattern of the poetry towhich it was set. Claude Le Jeune and Jacques Mauduit were the chief composers of thistype of Chanson. These songs marked the end of the development of the FORMALRENASSAINCE Chanson.